BIOTIC Species Information for Halichondria bowerbanki
Researched byDr Keith Hiscock and Hugh Jones Data supplied byMarLIN
Refereed byDr Rob van Soest
Distribution and Habitat
Distribution in Britain & IrelandCommonly found in southern England, Pembrokeshire and north west Wales, also frequently found in western Scotland. Isolated records from the North Sea.
Global distributionPresent on both sides of the north Atlantic. In Europe it has been reported south to Brittany, and is found in the south west Netherlands and in harbours of the Wadden Sea. It is a non-native species in North America.
Biogeographic rangeNot researched Depth rangeOccasionally intertidal, to 90 m
MigratoryNon-migratory / Resident   
Distribution Additional InformationIn the United Kingdom, Halichondria bowerbanki (studied as Halichondria coalita) was recorded up to depths of 90 m (Bowerbank, 1874, cited in Vethaak et al., 1982).

Substratum preferencesOverhangs
Physiographic preferencesEstuary
Strait / sound
Ria / Voe
Isolated saline water (Lagoon)
Biological zoneSublittoral Fringe
Wave exposureSheltered
Tidal stream strength/Water flowStrong (3-6 kn)
Moderately Strong (1-3 kn)
Weak (<1 kn)
SalinityFull (30-40 psu)
Reduced (18-30 psu)
Habitat Preferences Additional InformationOccurs in muddy environments where the similar sponge Halichondria panicea cannot survive. Reaches its best development in harbours. In the Oosterschelde, Halichondria bowerbanki was found growing on tunicates (especially Styela clava), molluscs and, in a brackish lagoon, on small reefs of Electra crustulenta (Vethaak et al., 1982).
Distribution References Soest van et al., 2000, Hayward et al., 1996, Moss & Ackers, 1982, Biernbaum, 1981, Soest van, 1977, JNCC, 1999, NBN, 2002, Vethaak et al., 1982, Bowerbank, 1874,
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