BIOTIC Species Information for Halichondria bowerbanki
Researched byDr Keith Hiscock and Hugh Jones Data supplied byMarLIN
Refereed byDr Rob van Soest
Reproduction/Life History
Reproductive typePermanent hermaphrodite
Developmental mechanismViviparous (Parental Care)
Reproductive SeasonApril to November Reproductive LocationAs adult
Reproductive frequencyInsufficient information Regeneration potential Yes
Life spanInsufficient information Age at reproductive maturityInsufficient information
Generation timeInsufficient information FecundityInsufficient information
Egg/propagule sizeInsufficient information Fertilization typeInternal
Larval/Juvenile dispersal potentialInsufficient information Larval settlement periodInsufficient information
Duration of larval stageInsufficient information   
Reproduction Preferences Additional InformationIn the Oosterschelde, large oocytes and embryos found from early August until mid-October which coincided with a drop in water temperature from maximal summer values to about 14 °C (Vethaak et al., 1982). Wapstra & van Soest (1987) recorded that Halichondria bowerbanki from the same area contained oocytes from April through to November although embryos were only observed from June to November. Newly settled colonies were seen within just over a year, i.e. the following September and October (Vethaak et al., 1982) . Wapstra & van Soest (1982) noted that it was possible that Halichondria bowerbanki could be protandrous or protogynous hermaphrodites. No information was found concerning the life span of Halichondria bowerbanki although a life span of about 3 years was suggested for the closely related Halichondria panicea in Fish & Fish (1996).

Halichondria bowerbanki survives over the winter months as a dormant form with no growth and a disintegration of tissue. In the Oosterschelde, this species experienced a drastic reduction in biomass during the severe winter of 1978/9, especially in the intertidal (Vethaak et al., 1982).

Reproduction References Soest van et al., 2000, Wapstra & van Soest, 1987,
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