BIOTIC Species Information for Caryophyllia smithii
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Researched byPaul Gregory Data supplied byMarLIN
Refereed byThis information is not refereed.
Taxonomy
Scientific nameCaryophyllia smithii Common nameDevonshire cup coral
MCS CodeD783 Recent SynonymsCaryophyllia claves, Paracyathus taxilianus, Paracyathus thulensis, Paracyathus pteropus.

PhylumCnidaria Subphylum
SuperclassAnthozoa ClassHexacorallia
Subclass OrderScleractina
Suborder FamilyCaryophylliidae
GenusCaryophyllia Speciessmithii
Subspecies   

Additional InformationManuel (1988) states that the Devonshire cup coral has two forms; a shallow water form (Caryophyllia smithii var. smithii) that can be found in waters up to 100 m deep and a deep water form (Caryophyllia smithii var. clavus) that is found in water >50-1000 m deep. The shape of the corallum is distinctly different between the two forms, the deep water form being smaller with a narrow base, but the two forms are otherwise similar in general structure (Manuel, 1988). Caryophyllia inornata is very similar and co-occurs in some locations. Young specimens of Caryophyllia smithii are usually six-rayed and may be virtually indistinguishable from Caryophyllia inornata (Manuel, 1983).
Taxonomy References Hayward & Ryland, 1995b, Hayward et al., 1996, Gibson et al., 2001, Howson & Picton, 1997, Howson & Picton, 1999, Manuel, 1988, Manuel, 1983,
General Biology
Growth formCylindrical
Radial
Feeding methodPassive suspension feeder
Predator
Mobility/MovementPermanent attachment
Environmental positionEpifaunal
Typical food typesZooplankton, organic particulates HabitAttached
BioturbatorNot relevant FlexibilityNone (< 10 degrees)
FragilityFragile SizeSmall(1-2cm)
HeightUp to 1.5 cm Growth RateInsufficient information
Adult dispersal potentialNone DependencyIndependent
SociabilitySolitary
Toxic/Poisonous?No
General Biology Additional InformationManuel (1988) states that the Devonshire cup coral has two forms; a shallow water form (Caryophyllia smithii var. smithii) that can be found in waters up to 100 m deep and a deep water form (Caryophyllia smithii var. clavus) that is found in water >50-1000 m deep. The shape of the corallum is distinctly different between the two forms, the deep water form being smaller with a narrow base, but the two forms are otherwise similar in general structure (Manuel, 1988).

Caryophyllia inornata is very similar and co-occurs in some locations. Young specimens of Caryophyllia smithii are usually six-rayed and may be virtually indistinguishable from Caryophyllia inornata (Manuel, 1983).

Growth rate up to 4 mm in first year (Bell, 2002), then up to 2 mm in subsequent years (Hiscock & Howlett, 1976).
Biology References Manuel, 1983, Bell, 2002, Hiscock & Howlett, 1976, Bell, 2002, Gibson et al., 2001, Manuel, 1983, Fish & Fish, 1996, Bell & Turner, 2000,
Distribution and Habitat
Distribution in Britain & IrelandFound from Shetland, north eastern England, the south west, Wales, Ireland and north western Scotland.
Global distributionAbundant around south west Europe and the Mediterranean and also found in Denmark (Hayward & Ryland, 1995b; Tendal & Nielsen, 1997).
Biogeographic rangeNot researched Depth rangeCaryophyllia smithii var clavus can be found at >1000 m depth (Manuel, 1988).
MigratoryNon-migratory / Resident   
Distribution Additional InformationNone entered

Substratum preferencesBedrock
Large to very large boulders
Cobbles
Other species (see additional information)
Physiographic preferences
Biological zone Wave exposure
Tidal stream strength/Water flow Salinity
Habitat Preferences Additional InformationIt is found on hard bits in sandy areas, mud between boulders etc. (Wilson, 1975). The upper limit of Caryophyllia smithii var clavus is determined by water turbulence as this form is susceptible to dislodgement due to its narrow base. However, free living forms are often found on the seabed as a result of such breakage (Manuel, 1988). Generally smaller size with increased sedimentation although taller height to escape smothering (Bell & Turner, 2000).
Distribution References Hayward & Ryland, 1995b, Hayward et al., 1996, Gibson et al., 2001, Howson & Picton, 1999, Manuel, 1988, Manuel, 1983, Hiscock & Howlett, 1976, Tendal & Nielsen, 1997, Wilson, 1975, Fish & Fish, 1996,
Reproduction/Life History
Reproductive typeGonochoristic
Developmental mechanismPlanktotrophic
Reproductive SeasonJanuary-March Reproductive LocationInsufficient information
Reproductive frequencyAnnual episodic Regeneration potential No
Life span11-20 years Age at reproductive maturityInsufficient information
Generation timeInsufficient information FecundityInsufficient information
Egg/propagule sizeInsufficient information Fertilization typeExternal
Larvae/Juveniles
Larval/Juvenile dispersal potential>10km Larval settlement periodInsufficient information
Duration of larval stage1-6 months   
Reproduction Preferences Additional InformationIn a laboratory, sperm and ova were produced over a two week period in February for several years (Hiscock & Howlett, 1976). Bell (2002) reported a reproductive season between January and March in Lough Hyne, Ireland and settlement between March and June.
Reproduction References Bell, 2002, Tranter et al., 1982,
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