|Researched by||Jessica Heard||Refereed by||Admin|
|Other common names||-||Synonyms||-|
Mature Gadus morhua grow to approximately 120 cm in length, weighing around 12 kg, however, larger fish have been recorded. Age of maturity varies regionally but is usually between one and fifteen years. Colour is variable depending on habitat but most are spotted with white bellies. Atlantic cod are commonly found on sandy bottoms and are often mottled brown in appearance. This is a heavy and powerful fish with three dorsal and two anal fins, all slightly rounded, and either a square or rounded tail fin. The upper jaw overhangs the lower and the long chin barbel is equal to the eye in diameter. A prominent curved, white (or very pale) lateral line makes this species easy to identify.
Atlantic cod is one of the UKs most popular commercial species and as a result has been fished extensively in UK waters. They can often be found in large, dense shoals, making them an easy target for fishermen.
Atlantic cod are productive breeders. Spawning occurs between February and April when 3 to 6 million buoyant eggs are released, often forming great swarms that can be transported miles by ocean currents before hatching after 12 days. The larval stage of this species is also planktonic and will be carried by currents for up to 2 months before settling on the seabed where the Atlantic cod spend most of their life (Dipper, 2001).
Young Gadus morhua feed mainly on copepods but become increasingly dependent on fish as they age, eating the likes of herring, capelin, haddock and even other cod (Dipper, 2001; Wheeler, 1969).
Amlund, H., Lundebye, A.K. & Berntssen, M.H.G., 2007. Accumulation and elimination of methylmercury in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua L.) following dietary exposure. Aquatic Toxicology, 83(4), 323-330.
Anthony, P.D., 1981. Visual contrast thresholds in the cod Gadus morhua L. Journal of Fish Biology, 19(1), 87-103.
ARKive, Accessed 19 February 2009. Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) Available from: http://www.arkive.org/atlantic-cod/gadus-morhua/info.html,
Armstrong, M.J., Gerritsen, H.D., Allen, M., Mccurdy, W.J. & Peel, J.A.D., 2004. Variability in maturity and growth in a heavily exploited stock: cod (Gadus morhua L.) in the Irish Sea. ICES Journal of Marine Science, 61(1), 98-112.
Arnold, G.P., Walker, M.G., Emerson, L.S. & Holford, B.H., 1994. Movements of cod (Gadus morhua L.) in relation to the tidal streams in the southern North Sea. ICES Journal of Marine Science, 51(2), 207-232.
Astrup, J. & Møhl, B., 1993. Detection of intense ultrasound by the cod Gadus morhua. Journal of Experimental Biology, 182, 71-80.
Auditore, P.J., Lough, R.G. & Broughton, E.A., 1994. A Review of the Comparative Development of Atlantic Cod (Gadus morhua L.) and Haddock (Melanogrammus aeglefinus L.) Based on an Illustrated Series of Larvae and Juveniles from Georges Bank. NAFO Science Council Studies, pp. 7-18., Northwest Atlantic Fisheries Organisation.
Available from: http://www.ices.dk/marineworld/fishmap/ices/pdf/cod.pdf Accessed 19 February 2009. ICES- FishMap. Cod Gadus morhua. ,
Baden, S., Gullström, M., Lundé n, B., Pihl, L. & Rosenberg, R., 2003. Vanishing Seagrass (Zostera marina, L.) in Swedish Coastal Waters. Ambio, 32(5), 374-377.
Bang, A., Grø nkjæ r, P. & Lorenzen, B., 2008. The relation between concentrations of ovarian trace elements and the body size of Atlantic cod Gadus morhua. International Council for the Exploration of the Sea, 65(7), 1191-1197.
Beaugrand, G., Brander, K.M., Lindley, J.A., Souissi, S. & Reid, P.C., 2003. Plankton have effect on cod recruitment in North Sea. Nature, 426, 661-664.
Bergstad, O.A., Jørgensen, T. & Dragesund, O., 1987. Life history and ecology of the gadoid resources of the Barents Sea. Fisheries Research, 5, 119-161.
Boesch, D.F. & Rabalais, N.N., 1991. Long-term environmental effects of offshore oil and gas development.
Borg, A., Pihl, L. & Wennhage, H., 1997. Habitat choice by juvenile cod (Gadus morhua L.) on sandy soft bottoms with different vegetation types. Helgolander Meeresuntersuchungen, 51(2), 197-212.
Bowman, R.E., 1981b. Food of 10 species of northwest Atlantic juvenile groundfish. Fisheries Bulletin U.S., 79, 200-206.
Brander, K., 1995. The effect of temperature on growth of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua L.). ICES Journal of Marine Science, 52, 1-10.
Brander, K., 2000. Effects of environmental variability on growth and recruitment in cod (Gadus morhua) using a comparative approach. Oceanologica Acta, 23(4), 485-496.
Brander, K.M., 2005. Cod recruitment is strongly affected by climate when stock biomass is low. ICES Journal of Marine Science: Journal du Conseil, 62(3), 339-343.
Brander, K.M., 2007. The role of growth changes in the decline and recovery of North Atlantic cod stocks since 1970. ICES Journal of Marine Science, 64(2), 211-217.
Buerkle, U., 1977. Detection of trawling noise by Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua L.). Marine Behaviour and Physiology, 4, 233-242.
Bøhle, B. 1983. Avoidance of petroleum hydrocarbons by the cod (Gadus morhua). Fisk Dir. Skr. Ser. Hav Unders, 18, 97-112.
Campana, S.E., Mohn, R.K., Smith, S.J. & Chouinard, G.A., 1995. Spatial implications of a temperature- based growth model for Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) off the eastern coast of Canada.
Cardinale, M. & Modin, J., 1999. Changes in size-at-maturity of Baltic cod (Gadus morhua) during a period of large variations in stock size and environmental conditions. Fisheries Research, 41(3), 285-295.
Chapman, C.J. & Hawkins, A.D., 1973. A field study of hearing in the cod, Gadus morhua L. Journal of Comparative Physiology A: Neuroethology, 85, 147-167.
Chapman, C.J., 1973. Field studies of hearing in teleost fish. Helgolgnder wiss. Meeresunters, 24, 371-390.
Chesmana, B.S., O’Haraa, S., Burta, G.R. & Langston, W.J., 2007. Hepatic metallothionein and total oxyradical scavenging capacity in Atlantic cod Gadus morhua caged in open sea contamination gradients. Aquatic Toxicology, 84(3), 310-320.
Chodyniecki, A., Kurpios, M., Protasowicki, M., Ociepa, A. & Juran, J., 1975. Studies on mercury content in selected fish species from Pomeranian Gulf and Szczecin Firth. Acta Ichthyologica et Piscatoria, 5, 51-57.
Chouinard, G.A., Currie, L., Sinclair, A., Poirier, G. & Swain, D., 2000. Assessment of cod in the southern Gulf of St Lawrence, February 2000. Canadian Stock Assessment Secretariat Research Document. No.2000/019.
Claireaux G., Webber D.M., Lagardere J.-P., Kerr S.R., 2000. Influence of water temperature and oxygenation on the aerobic metabolic scope of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) Journal of Sea Research, 44(3), 257-265
Claireaux, G., Webber, D.M., Kerr, S.R., and Boutilier, R.G. 1995. Physiology and behaviour of free-swimming Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) facing fluctuating temperature conditions. Journal of Experimental Biology, 198, 49-60.
Claireaux, G., Webber, D.M., Kerr, S.R., Boutilier, R.G., 1995. Physiology and behaviour of free-swimming Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) facing fluctuating salinity and oxygenation conditions Journal of Experimental Biology, 198(1), 61-69
Clark, R.A., Fox, C.J., Viner, D. & Livermore, M., 2003. North Sea cod and climate change e modelling the effects of temperature on population dynamics. Global Change Biology, 9, 1-12.
Cohen, D.M., Inada, T., Iwamoto, T. & Scialabba, N., 1990. FAO species catalogue. Vol. 10. Gadiform Fishes of the World. An Annotated and Illustrated Catalogue of Cods, Hakes, Grenadiers and Other Gadiform Fishes Known to Date. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) Fisheries Synopsies, 125
Comeau, L.A., Campana, S.E. & Chouinard, G.A., 2002. Timing of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua L.) seasonal migrations in the southern Gulf of St Lawrence: interannual variability and proximate control. ICES Journal of Marine Science, 59, 333-351.
Cook, R.M., Sinclair, A. & Stefansson, G., 1997. Potential collapse of North Sea cod stocks. Nature, 385, 521-522.
Daan, N. (ed)., 1989. Data base report of the stomach sampling project 1981. ICES Cooperative Research Report 164. 144 pp.
Dabrowska, H., Bernard, E., Barska, I. & Radtke, K., In press (2009). Inter-tissue distribution and evaluation of potential toxicity of PCBs in Baltic cod (Gadus morhua L.). Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety.
Dannevig, A. & Silversten, E., 1993. On the influence of various physiological factors on cod larvae; experiments at the Flodvig sea fish hatchery. Journal du Conseil Permanent International pour l'Exploration de la Mer, 8, 90-99.
Davies, J.M., Bell, J.S. & Houghton, C., 1984. A comparison of the levels of hepatic aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase in fish caught close to and distant from North Sea oil fields. Marine Environmental Research, 14, 23-45.
Davies, J.M., Hardy, R. & McIntyre, A.D., 1981. Environmental effects of north sea oil operations. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 12, 412-416.
Dethlefsen, V., 1977. The influence of DDT and DDE on the embryogenesis and the mortality of larvae of cod (Gadus morhua L.). Meereforschung, 25, 115-148.
Dipper, F., 2001. British sea fishes (2nd edn). Teddington: Underwater World Publications Ltd.
Drinkwater, K.F., 2002. A review of the role of climate variability in the decline of northern cod.
Drinkwater, K.F., 2005. The response of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) to future climate change. ICES Journal of Marine Science, 62, 1327-1337.
Dutil, J.-D., Munro, J., Audet, C. & Besner, M., 1992. Seasonal variation in the physiological response of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) to low salinity.
Dutil, J.D., Castonguay, M., Gilbert, D. & Gascon, D., 1999. Growth, condition, and environmental relationships in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) in the northern Gulf of St Lawrence and implications for management strategies in the Northwest Atlantic. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 56, 1818-1831.
Engås, A., Løkkeborg, S., Ona, E. & Soldal, A.V., 1996. Effects of seismic shooting on local abundance and catch rates of cod (Gadus morhua) and haddock (Melanogrammus aeglefinus). Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 53(10), 2238-2249.
Engell-SØrensen, K. & Skyt, P.H., 2003. Evaluation of the Effect of Sediment Spill from Offshore Wind Farm Construction on Marine Fish. (ed. C.B. Hvidt): SEAS.
Eriksen, D.Ø., Sidhu, R., Strålberg, E., Iden, K.I., Hylland, K., Ruus, A., Røyset, O., Berntssen, M.H.G. & Rye, H., 2006. Radionuclides in produced water from Norwegian oil and gas installations - concentrations and bioavailability. Czechoslovak Journal of Physics, 56(4), D43-D48.
Everhart, W.H. & Duchrow, R.M., 1970. Effects of suspended sediment on aquatic environments. NTIS U.S. Department of Commerce, PB-196-641. Cited in: Engell-Sø rensen, K. & Skyt, P.H., 2003. Evaluation of the Effect of Sediment Spill from Offshore Wind Farm Construction on Marine Fish. (ed. C.B. Hvidt): SEAS.
Fahay, M.P., Berrien, P.L., Johnson, D.L. & Morse, W.W., 1999. Essential Fish Habitat Document: Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua. Life history and habitat characteristics. NOAA Technical Memorandum, NMFS-NE-124, pp. 41., National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration: National Marine Fisheries Service.
Fletcher, G.L., King, M.J. & Kao, M.H., 1987. Low temperature regulation of antifreeze glycopeptide levels in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua). Canadian Journal of Zoology, 65, 227-233.
Floss, A., Stefansson, S.O., Roth, B., Imsland, A.K., 2007. Interactive effects of oxgen saturation and ammonia on growth and physiology in juvenile turbot. Aquaculture 271, 244-251
Foyn, L. & Serigstad, B., 1988. Oil Exploration in New Offshore Fields. Fish Larvae as the Critical Component in the Assessment of Potential Consequences for the Fish Resources. ICES Council Meeting Papers, ICES CM-1988/E: 18, 8.
Fréchet, A., 1990. Catchability variations of cod in the marginal ice zone. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 47, 1678-1683.
Friedlander, B.R., Gochfeld, M., Burger, J., Vyas, V. & Powers, C.W., 2005. Additional Comparative Levels of Radionuclides in Marine Biota. In Biological and Geophysical Aspects of Potential Radionuclide Exposure in the Amchitka Marine Environment. Amchitka Independent Science Assessment, (eds. C.W. Powers, J. Burger, D. Kosson, M. Gochfeld and D. Barnes)
Froese, R. & Pauly, D., 2004. Fishbase. A global information system on fishes. [On-line] http://www.fishbase.org, 2004-10-18
Fu, C., Mohn, R. & Fanning, L.P., 2001. Why the Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) stock off eastern Nova Scotia has not recovered. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 58, 1613-1623.
Gerstner, C.L., 1998. Use of substratum ripples for flow refuging by Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua. Environmental Biology of Fishes, 51(4), 455-460.
GodØ, O.R. & Haug, T., 1999. Growth Rate and Sexual Maturity in Cod (Gadus morhua) and Atlantic Halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus). Journal of Northwest Atlantic Fisheries Science, 25, 115-123.
Godø, O.R. & Moksness, E., 1987. Growth and Maturation of Norwegian Coastal Cod and NortheastArctic Cod under Different Conditions.
Gotceitas, V., Fraser, S. & Brown, J.A., 1997. Use of eelgrass beds (Zostera marina) by juvenile Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua). Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 54, 1306-1319.
Granmo, A., Ekelund, R., Sneli, J.-A., Berggren, M. & Svavarsson, J., 2002. Effects of antifouling paint components (TBTO, copper and triazine) on the early development of embryos in cod (Gadus morhua L.). Marine Pollution Bulletin, 44(10), 1142-1148.
Haahti, H. & Perttila, M., 1988. Levels and trends of organochlorines in cod and herring in the northern Baltic. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 19(1), 29-32.
Hansen, G.H. & Olafsen, J.A., 1989. Bacterial Colonization of Cod (Gadus morhua L.) and Halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus) Eggs in Marine Aquaculture. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 55(6), 1435-1446.
Hansson, S. & Rudstam, L., 1990. Eutrophication and Baltic fish communities. Ambio, 19(3), 123-125.
Harden Jones, F.R. & Scholes, P., 1974. The effect of low temperature on cod, Gadus morhua. Journal du Conseil Permanent International pour l'Exploration de la Mer 35, 258– 271.
Haslob, H., Clemmesen, C., Schaber, M., Hinrichsen, H.H., Schmidt, J.O., Voss, R., Kraus, G. & Kö ster, F.W., 2007. Invading Mnemiopsis leidyi as a potential threat to Baltic fish. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 349, 303-306.
Hawkins, A.D., 1993. Underwater Sound and Fish Behaviour. In: Behaviour of teleost fishes, (ed. T.J. Pitcher), pp. 129-170. London: Chapman and Hall.
Heessen, H.J.L., 1993. The Distribution of Cod (Gadus morhua) in the North Sea. Northwest Atlantic Fisheries Organization Scientific Council Studies, 18, 59-65.
Hellou, J., Payne, J.F. & Hamilton, C., 1994. Polycyclic aromatic compounds in Northwest Atlantic Cod (Gadus morhua). Environmental Pollution, 84(2), 197-202.
Hellou, J., Warren, W.G., Payne, J.F., Belkhode, S. & Lobel, P., 1992. Heavy metals and other elements in three tissues of cod, Gadus morhua from the Northwest Atlantic. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 24, 452-458.
Hellstrom, T. & Doving, K.B., 1983. Perception of disel oil by cod (Gadus morhua). Aquatic Toxicology, 4, 303-315.
Hemmingsen, W. & Mackenzie, K., 2001. The parasite fauna of the Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua L. Advances in Marine Biology, 40, 1-80.
Herbert, N.A.; Steffensen, J.F., 2005. The response of Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua, to progressive hypoxia: fish swimming speed and physiological stress. Marine Biology, 147(6), 1403-1412
Hew, C.L., Slaughter, D., Fletcher, G.L. & Joshi, S.B., 1981. Antifreeze glycoproteins in the plasma of Newfoundland Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua). Canadian Journal of Zoology, 59, 2186-2192.
Hiscock, K., Sewell, J. & Oakley, J., 2005. Marine Health Check 2005. A report to guage the health of the UK’s sea-life. Godalming, WWF-UK.
Holden, M.J., 1960. Evidence of Cod (Gadus morhua L.) Migrations from the Norway Coast to the Faroese Islands. ICES Journal of Marine Science, 26(1), 68-72.
Howson, C.M. & Picton, B.E., 1997. The species directory of the marine fauna and flora of the British Isles and surrounding seas. Belfast: Ulster Museum. [Ulster Museum publication, no. 276.]
Humborstad, O.-B., Davis, M.W. & Lokkeborg, S., 2009. Reflex impairment as a measure of vitality and survival potential of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua). In Fishery Bulletin, 107 (3) pp. 395-402.
Hutchings, J.A. & Baum, J.K., 2005. Measuring marine fish biodiversity: temporal changes in abundance, life history and demography. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences, 360, 315-338.
Hutchings, J.A. & Myers, R.A., 1994. What can be learned from the collapse of a renewable resource? Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua, of Newfoundland and Labrador. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 51, 2126-2146.
Hutchings, J.A. & Reynolds, J.D., 2004. Marine Fish Population Collapses: Consequences for Recovery and Extinction Risk. BioScience, 54(4), 297–309
Hutchings, J.A., 2005. Life history consequences of overexploitation to population recovery in Northwest Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua). Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Science, 62, 824-832.
Hutchings, J.A., Bishop, T.D. & McGregor-Shaw, C.R., 1999. Spawning behaviour of Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua: evidence of mate competition and mate choice in a broadcast spawner. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 56(1), 97-104.
Hylland, K., Ruus, A., Grung, M. & Green, N., 2009. Relationships Between Physiology, Tissue Contaminants, and Biomarker Responses in Atlantic Cod (Gadus morhua L.). Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Part A, 72(3), 226 - 233.
ICES, 1965. Report of the meeting in Hamburg, 18-23 January 1965. ICES Cooperative Research Report Series B, Annex 1
ICES, accessed 2009. ICES - FishMap: Cod Gadus morhua. ,
Isaksson, I., Pihl, L. & Van Montfrans, J., 1994. Eutrophication-related changes in macrovegetation and foraging of young cod (Gadus morhua L.): A mesocosm experiment. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 177(2), 203-217.
Johansen, J.L., Herbert, N.A., Steffensen, J.F., 2006. The behavioural and physiological response of Atlantic cod Gadus morhua L. to short-term acute hypoxia. Journal of Fish Biology, 68(6), 1918-1924
Julliard, R., Stenseth, N.C., GjøsÆter, J., Lekve, K., Fromentin, J.-M. & Danielssen, D.S., 2001. Natural Mortality And Fishing Mortality In A Coastal Cod Population: A Release–Recapture Experiment. Ecological Applications, 11(2), 540-558.
Julshamn, K., Ringdal, O. & Braekkan, O.R., 1982. Mercury concentration in liver and muscle of cod (Gadus morhua) as an evidence of migration between waters with different levels of mercury. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 29, 544-549.
Jørgensen, T., 1990. Long-term changes in age at sexual maturity of Northeast Arctic cod (Gadus morhua L.). ICES Journal du Conseil, 46, 235-248.
Kanisch, G. & Nagel, G., 1991. Radioaktivitat in Fischen aus der Nordsee.
Kanisch, G., Neumann, G. & Ilus, E., 1995. Radionuclides In Biota. In: Radioactivity In The Baltic Sea 1984 - 1991. Baltic Sea Environment Proceedings, No. 61 pp. 93-120.
Karasev, A.B., Mitenev, V.K. & Shulman, B.S., 1996. Ecological peculiarities of the parasite fauna of cod and pollock in the vicinity of the Kislaya Inlet tidal power plant, western Murman (the Barents Sea) Sarsia, 80(4), 307-312.
Khan, R.A., 1990. Parasitism in marine fish after chronic exposure to petroleum hydrocarbons in the laboratory and to the Exxon Valdez oil spill. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 44, 759-7633.
Kiceniuk, J.W. & Khan, R.A., 1987. Effect of petroleum hydrocarbons on Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua, following chronic exposure. Canadian Journal of Zoology, 65(3), 490-494.
Kjesbu, O.S., 1989. The spawning activity of cod, Gadus morhua L. Journal of Fish Biology, 34(2), 195 - 206.
Kjesbu, O.S., Witthames, P.R., Solemdal, P. & Walker, M.G., 1998. Temporal variations in the fecundity of Arcto-Norwegian cod (Gadus morhua) in response to natural changes in food and temperature. Journal of Sea Research, 40, 303-321.
Koa, M.H. & Fletcher, G.L., 1988. Juvenile Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) can be more freeze resistant than adults. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 45, 902-905.
Kocan, R.M., von Westernhagen, H., Landolt, M.L. & Furstenberg, G., 1987. Toxicity of sea-surface microlayer: Effects of hexane extract on Baltic herring (Clupea harengus) and Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) embryos. Marine Environmental Research, 23, 291-305.
Kuhnold, W.W., 1978. Effects of the water soluable fraction of Venezuelan heavy feul oil (No. 6) on cod eggs and larvae. In Wake of the Argo merchant Proceedings of Symposium, January 1978, pp. 126-130. University of Rhode Island, Kingston.
Kuikka, S., Hildén, M., Gislason, H., Hansson, S., Sparholt, H. & Varis, O., 1999. Modeling environmentally driven uncertainties in Baltic cod (Gadus morhua) management by Bayesian influence diagrams. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 56, 629-641.
Lambert, Y. & Dutil, J.-D., 2001. Food intake and growth of adult Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua L.) reared under different conditions of stocking density, feeding frequency and size-grading. Aquaculture, 192(2-4), 233-247.
Lang, T. & Dethlefsen, V., 1987. Cadmium in Skeletally Deformed and Normally Developed Baltic Cod (Gadus morhua L.). ICES Council Meeting Papers, CM-1987/E: 30, 18.
Larsen, B.K., Pörtner, H.-O. & Jensen, F.B., 1997. Extra- and intracellular acid-base balance and ionic regulation in cod (Gadus morhua?) during combined and isolated exposures to hypercapnia and copper. Marine Biology,, 128(2), 337-346.
Last, J.M., 1978. The food of three species of gadoid larvae in the English Channel and the southern North Sea. Marine Biology 48, 377-386.
Laurence, C.G. & Rogers, C.A., 1976. Effects of temperature and salinity on comparative embryo development and mortality of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua L.) and haddock (Melanogrammus aeglefinus L.) Journal du Conseil Permanent International pour l'Exploration de la Mer, 36(3), 220-228.
Lear, W.H. & Parsons, L.S., 1993. History and management of the fishery for northern cod in NAFO Divisions 2J, 3K and 3L. In Perspectives on Canadian marine fisheries management, No. 226 (eds. L.S. Parsons and W.H. Lear), pp. 55-89. Canadian Bulletin of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences.
Lear, W.H., 1998. History of fisheries in the northwest Atlantic: the 500 year perspective. Journal of Northwest Atlantic Fisheries Society, 23, 41-73
Lengyel, N.L., Collie, J.S. & Valentine, P.C., 2009. The invasive colonial ascidian Didemnum vexillum on Georges Bank - Ecological effects and genetic identification. Aquatic Invasions, 4(1), 143-152.
Leppäkoski, E., Gollasch, S. & Olenin, S., 2002. 2002. Invasive aquatic species of Europe. Distribution, impacts, and management. Kluwer Academic Publishers.
Lesser, M.P., Farrell, J.H. & Walker, C.W., 2001. Oxidative Stress, DNA Damage and P53 Expression in the Larvae of Atlantic Cod (Gadus Morhua) Exposed to Ultraviolet (290–400 Nm) Radiation. The Journal of Experimental Biology, 204, 157-164.
Lie, K.K., Meier, S. & Olsvik, P.A., 2009. Effects of environmental relevant doses of pollutants from offshore oil production on Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua). Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology, Part C, 150, 141-149.
Lilly, G.R., 1991. Interannual variability in predation by cod (Gadus morhua) on capelin (Mallotus villosus) and other prey off southern Labrador and northeastern Newfoundland. ICES Marine Science Symposia, 193, 133-146.
Link, J.S. & Garrison, L.P., 2002. Trophic ecology of Atlantic cod Gadus morhua on the northeast US continental shelf. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 227, 109-123.
Longwell, A.C., 1977. A genetic look at fish eggs and oil. Oceanus, 20, 46-58.
Lough, R.G., Valentine, P.C., Potter, D.C., Auditore, P.J., Bolz, G.R., Neilson, J.D. & Perry, R.I., 1989. Ecology and distribution of juvenile cod and haddock in relation to sediment type and bottom currents on eastern Georges Bank. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 56, 1-12.
Lønning, S., 1977. The effects of Ekofisk crude oil and oil products on marine fish larvae. Astarte, 10, 37-47.
Mann, K.H. & Drinkwater, K.F., 1994. Environmental influences on fish and shellfish production in the Northwest Atlantic. Environmental Review, 2, 16-32.
Marthinsen, I., Staveland, G., Skåre, J.U., Ugland, K.I. & Haugen, A., 1991. Levels of environmental pollutants in male and female flounder (Platichthys flesus L.) and cod (Gadus morhua) caught during the year 1988 near or in the waterway of Glomma, the largest river of Norway. I. Polychlorinated biphenyls. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 20, 353-360.
Matishov, D.G. & Matishov, G.G., 2004. Radioecology in Northern European Seas Berlin: Springer.
Matishov, G.G., Usyagina, I.S. & Matishov, D.G., 2008. Artificial radionuclides in the tissues of the Barents Sea commercial fish species.
McKenzie, R.A., 1938. Cod take smaller bites in ice-cold water. Fisheries Research Board of Canada, Atlantic Progress Report 22 12-14.
Meager, J.J. & Batty, R.S., 2007. Effects of turbidity on the spontaneous and prey-searching activity of juvenile Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua). Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences, 362, 2123-2130.
Meager, J.J. & Utne-Palm, A.C., 2008. Effect of turbidity on habitat preference of juvenile Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua. Environmental Biology of Fishes, 81(2), 149-155.
Meager, J.J., Domenici, P., Shingles, A. & Utne-Palm, A.C., Meager, J.J., Domenici, P., Shingles, A. & Utne-Palm, A.C., 2006. Escape responses in juvenile Atlantic cod Gadus morhua L.: the effects of turbidity and predator speed. Journal of Experimental Biology, 209, 4174-4184.
Meager, J.J., Solbakken. T, Utne-Palm, A.C. & Oen, T., 2005. Effects of turbidity on the reaction distance, search time and foraging success of juvenile Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua). Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 62, 1978-1984.
Mikalsen, J., Olsen, A.B., Tengs, T. & Colquhoun, D.J. 2007. Francisella philomiragia subsp. noatunensis subsp. nov., isolated from farmed Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua L.). International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology, 57, 1960-1965.
Miller, T.J., Herra, T. & Leggett, W.C., 1995. An individual-based analysis of the variability of eggs and their newly hatched larvae of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) on the Scotian Shelf. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 52, 1088-1093.
Mitson, R.B., 1995. Underwater Noise Of Research Vessels: Review and Recommendations. International Council for the Exploration of the Sea, Cooperative Research Report, 209.
Monk, J., Puvanendran, V. & Brown, J.A., 2008. Does different tank bottom colour affect the growth, survival and foraging behaviour of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) larvae? Aquaculture, 277(3-4), 197-202.
Monosson, E. & Lincoln, D., 2006. Comparison of PCBs, organochlorine pesticides, and trace metals in cod liver from Georges Bank and Stellwagen Bank, USA and Canada. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 52, 572-597.
Morgan, M.J., DeBlois, E.M. & Rose, G.A., 1997. An observation on the reaction of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) in a spawning shoal to bottom trawling. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 54(S1), 217-223.
Muus, B.J. & Dahlström, P., 1974. Collins guide to the sea fishes of Britain and North-Western Europe. London: Collins.
Myers, R.A., Barrowman, N.J., Hoenig, J.M. & Qu, Z., 1996. The collapse of cod in Eastern Canada: the evidence from tagging data. ICES Journal of Marine Science, 53, 629-640.
Myers, R.A., Drinkwater, K.F., Barrowman, N.J. & J.W., B., 1993. Salinity and recruitment of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) in the Newfoundland region. Canadian of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 50, 1599-1609.
Myers, R.A., Hutchings, J.A. & Barrowman, N.J., 1996. Hypotheses for the decline of cod in the North Atlantic. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 38, 293-308.
Nakken, O. & Raknes, A., 1987. The distribution and growth of Northeast Arctic cod in relation to bottom temperatures in the Barents Sea, 1978-1984.
Nakken, O. 1994. Causes of trends and fluctuations in the Arcto-Norwegian cod stock. ICES Marine Science Symposia, 193, 212-228.
National Biodiversity Network (NBN) Atlas website. Available from: http://www.nbnatlas.org. Accessed 01 April 2017
Nelson, J.A., Tang, Y. & Boutilier, R.G., 1994. Differences in exercise physiology between two Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) populations from different environments. Physiological Zoology, 67(2), 330-354.
Neuenfeldt, S., 2002. The influence of oxygen saturation on the distributional overlap of predator (cod, Gadus morhua) and prey (herring, Clupea harengus) in the Bornholm Basin of the Baltic Sea. Fisheries Oceanography, 11, 11–17
Nichol, D.G. & Chilton, E.A., 2006. Recuperation and behaviour of Pacific cod after barotrauma. ICES Journal of Marine Science, 63, 83-94.
NOAA, 1998. Essential Fish Habitat Description Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua). NEFMC EFH Amendment. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration: Habitat Conservation Divistion.
Nylund, A., Ottem, K.F., Watanabe, K., Karlsbakk, E. & Krossøy, B., 2006. Francisella sp. (Family Francisellaceae) causing mortality in Norwegian cod (Gadus morhua) farming. Archives of Microbiology, 185(5), 383-392.
Odense, P., Bordeleau, A. & Guibalt, R., 1966. Tolerance levels of Cod (Gadus morhua) to low salinity. Journal of the Fisheries Research Board of Canada, 23, 1465-1467.
Olsen, E.M., Heino, M., Lilly, G.R., Morgan, M.J., Brattey, J., Ernande, B. & Dieckmann, U. 2004. Maturation trends indicative of rapid evolution preceded the collapse of northern cod. Nature, 428, 932-935.
Olsen, K., Angell, J., Pettersen, F. & Lovlk, A. 1983. Observed fish reactions to a surveying vessel with special reference to herring, cod, capelin and polar fish. In: Symposium on Fisheries Acoustics FA0 Fisheries Report, vol. 300 (eds. Nakken and S.C. Venema), pp. 131-138. Bergen, Norway, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.
Olsen, K.K. & Joergensen, R. 2005. Investigations of effects of simulated low frequency sonar signals on survival, development and behaviour of fish larvae and juveniles. Report of the Working Group on Fisheries Acoustics Science and Technology, ICES CM 2005/B:05 pp. 57. Rome.
Ona, E. & Chruickshank, O., 1986. Haddock avoidance reactions during trawling. ICES Fish Capture Committee Report, C.M. B:36, 13.
Ona, E., 1988. Observations of cod reaction to trawling noise. ICES Fisheries Acoustics Science and Technology Working Group, Ostend: ICES.
Otterlei, E., Nyhammer, G., Folkvord, A. & Stefansson, S., 1999. Temperature and size-dependent growth of larval and early juvenile cod, Gadus morhua - a comparative study between Norwegian coastal cod and northeast Arctic cod. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 56, 2099-2111.
Ottersen, G. & Sundby, S., 1995. Effects of temperature, wind and spawning stock biomass on recruitment of Arcto-Norwegian cod. Fisheries Oceanography, 4(4), 278-292.
Ottersen, G., Loeng, H. & Raknes, A., 1994. Influence of temperature variability on recruitment of cod in the Barents Sea. ICES Marine Science Symposia, 198, 471-481.
Ottersen, G., Michalsen, K. & Nakken, O., 1998. Ambient temperature and distribution of north-east Arctic cod. ICES Journal of Marine Science, 55, 67-85.
O’Brien, L., Burnett, J. & Mayo, R.K., 1993. Maturation of Nineteen Species of Finfish off the Northeast Coast of the United States, 1985-1990. NOAA Tech. Report. NMFS 113, pp. 66. U.S. Department of Commerce.
Page, F.H. & Frank, K.T., 1989. Spawning time and egg stage duration in Northwest Atlantic haddock (Melanogrammus aeglefinus) stocks with emphasis on Georges and Brown Bank. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 46(Suppl. 1), 68-81.
Pérez-Casanovaa, J.C., Risea, M.L., Dixonb, B., Afonsoc, L.O.B., Halla, J.R., Johnsonc, S.C. & Gamperl, A.K., 2008. The immune and stress responses of Atlantic cod to long-term increases in water temperature. Fish & Shellfish Immunology, 24(5), 600-609.
Perry, R.I. & Neilson, J.D., 1988. Vertical distributions and trophic interactions of age-O Atlantic cod and haddock in mixed and stratified waters of Georges Bank. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 49, 199-214.
Perttila, M., Tervo, V. & Parmanne, R., 1982. Heavy metals in Baltic herring and cod. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 13, 391-393.
Pihl, L., 1994. Changes in the Diet of Demersal Fish due to Eutrophication-Induced Hypoxia in the Kattegat, Sweden. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 51(2), 321-336.
Pinhorn, A.T., 1984. Temporal and Spatial Variation in Fecundity of Atlantic Cod (Gadus morhua) in Newfoundland Waters. Journal of Northwest Atlantic Fisheries Science, 5, 161-170.
Planque, B. & Frédou, T., 1999. Temperature and the recruitment of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua). Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 56, 2069-2077.
Plante, S., Chabot, D., Dutil, J.D., 1998. Hypoxia tolerance in Atlantic cod. Journal of Fish Biology, 53, 1342–1356.
Polak-Juszczak, L., 2009. Temporal trends in the bioaccumulation of trace metals in herring, sprat, and cod from the southern Baltic Sea in the 1994–2003 period. Chemosphere, 76, 1334-1339.
Ponomarenko, I.Y., 1984. Survival of bottom-dwelling young cod in the Barents Sea and factors determining it
Quevauviller, P., Kramer, G.N. & Griepink, B., 1992. A new certified reference material for the quality control of trace elements in marine monitoring: cod muscle (CRM 422). Marine Pollution Bulletin, 24(12), 601-606.
Rätz, H.-J. & Lloret, J., 2003. Variation in fish condition between Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) stocks, the effect on their productivity and management implications. Fisheries Research, 60, 369-380.
Reeves, S.A., Armstrong, D.W., Fryer, R.J. & Coull, K.A., 1992. The effects of mesh size, cod-end extension length and cod-end diameter on the selectivity of Scottish trawls and seines. ICES Journal of Marine Science, 49(3), 279-288.
Reidy, S.P., Kerr, S.R. & Nelson, J.A., 2000. Aerobic and anaerobic swimming performance of individual Atlantic Cod. Journal of Experimental Biology, 203, 347-357.
Remen, M., Imsland, A.K., Stefansson, S.O., Jonassen, T.M., Foss, A., 2008. Interactive effects of ammonia and oxygen on growth and physiological status of juvenile Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua). Aquaculture, 274(2-4), 292-299.
Riley, J.D. & Parnell, W.G., 1984. The distribution of young cod. In The propagation of Cod, Gadus morhua L. Flødevigen rapportser. 1, (eds. E. Dahl, D.S. Danielssen, E. Moksness and S. P.), pp. 563-580.
Ringdal, O. & Julshamn, K., 1985. Effect of selenite on the uptake of methylmercury in cod (Gadus morhua). Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 35(1), 335-344.
Robb, A.P. & Hislop, J.R.G., 1980. The food of five gadoid species during the pelagic 0-group phase in the northern North Sea. Journal of Fish Biology 16, 199-217.
Robinson, W. & Pederson, J., 2005. Contamination, habitat degradation, overfishing - an ‘‘Either-Or’’ debate?
Rose, G.A. & Leggett, W.C., 1988. Atmosphere-ocean coupling and Atlantic cod migrations: effects of wind-forced variations in sea temperatures and currents on nearshore distributions and catch rates of Gadus morhua. Canadian of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 45, 1234-1243.
Rose, G.A., 1993. Cod spawning on a migration highway in the north-west Atlantic Nature, 366, 458-461
Ruus, A., Green, N.W., Maage, A. & Skei, J., 2006. PCB-containing paint and plaster caused extreme PCB-concentrations in biota from Sørfjord (Western Norway) - a case study. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 52, 100-103.
Rye, H., Reed, M., Durgut, I., D.Ø. Eriksen, Sidhu, R., Strålberg, E., Iden, K.I., Ramsøy, T., Hylland, K., Ruus, A., Rø yset, O. & Berntsen, M.H.G., 2009. Enhanced levels of 226Ra radiation in sea water and sediment caused by discharges of produced water on the Norwegian Continental Shelf. Radioprotection, 44(5), 53-58.
Samuelsen, O.B., Nerland, A.H., Jørgensen, T., Schrøder, M.B., Terje Svåsand, T. & Bergh, Ø., 2006. Viral and bacterial diseases of Atlantic cod Gadus morhua, their prophylaxis and treatment: a review. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms, 71, 239-254.
Sand, O. & Karlsen, H.E., 1986. Detection of infrasound by the Atlantic cod. Journal of Experimental Biology, 125, 197-204.
Sangalang, G.B., Freeman, H.C. & Crowell, R., 1981. Testicular abnormalities in cod (Gadus morhua) fed Aroclor 1254. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 10(5), 617-626.
Sazykina, T.G., 1998. Long-Distance Radionuclide Transfer in the Arctic Seas Related to Fish Migrations. Radiation Protection Dosimetry, 75, 219-222.
Scholz, U. & Waller, U., 1992. The oxygen requirements of three fish species from the German Bight: cod Gadus morhua, plaice Pleuronectes platessa, and dab Limanda limanda. Journal of Applied Ichthyology, 8, 72-76.
Schuijf, A., 1975. Directional hearing of cod (Gadus morhua) under approximate free field conditions. Journal of Comparative Physiology A: Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology, 98(4), 307-332.
Schurmann, H. & Steffensen, J.F., 1992. Lethal oxygen levels at different temperatures and the preferred temperature during hypoxia of the Atlantic cod Gadus morhua L. Journal of Experimental Biology, 41, 927-934
Schurmann, H. & Steffensen, J.F., 1994. Spontaneous swimming activity of Atlantic cod Gadus morhua exposed to graded hypoxia at three temperatures. Journal of Experimental Biology, 197, 129-142.
Schurmann, H. & Steffensen, J.F., 1997. Effects of temperature, hypoxia and activity on the metabolism of juvenile cod. Journal of Fish Biology, 50, 1166-1180.
Scott, A.P., Katsiadaki, I., Witthames, P.R., Hylland, K., Davies, I.M., McIntosh, A.D. & Thain, J., 2006. Vitellogenin in the blood plasma of male cod (Gadus morhua): A sign of oestrogenic endocrine disruption in the open sea? Marine Environmental Research, 61(2), 149-170.
Scott, J.S., 1982. Selection of Bottom Type by Groundfishes of the Scotian Shelf. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 39(7), 943-947.
Shparkovskii, I.A., 1982. Effects of DDT on vegetative processes in cod. Soviet Journal of Marine Biology, 8, 285-289.
Sims, G.G., Cosham, C.E., Campbell, J.R. & Murray, M.C., 1975. DDT residues in cod livers from the maritime provinces of Canada. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 14, 505-512.
Skåre, J.U., Stenersen, J., Kveseth, N. & Polder, A., 1985. Time trends of organochlorine chemical residues in seven sedentary marine fish species from a Norwegian fjord during the period 1972-1982. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 14, 33-41.
Skjæraasen J.E., Nilsen, T., Meager, J.J., Herbert, N.A., Moberg, O., Tronci, V., Johansen, T., Salvanes, A.G.V., 2008. Hypoxic avoidance behaviour in cod (Gadus morhua L.): The effect of temperature and haemoglobin genotype. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 358, 70–77
Skwarzec, B., Struminskaa, D.I. & Boryloa, A., 2001. Bioaccumulation and distribution of plutonium in fish from Gdansk Bay. Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, 52(2), 167-178.
Smith, J.L., Wootten, R. & Sommerville, C., 2006. The pathology of the early stages of the crustacean parasite, Lernaeocera branchialis (L.), on Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua L. Journal of Fish Diseases, 30(1), 1 - 11.
Solbakken, J.E., Tilseth, S. & Palmork, K.H., 1984. Uptake and elimination of aromatic hydrocarbons and a chlorinated biphenyl in eggs and larvae of cod Gadus morhua. Marine Ecology Progress Series,, 16, 297-301.
Solberg, T.S., Tilseth, S., Serigstad, B. & Westrheim, K., 1982. Effects of Low Levels of a Heavy Fraction of Ekofisk Crude Oil on Eggs and Yolksac Larvae of Cod (Gadus morhua L.). ICES Council Meeting Papers, ICES CM-1982/E: 59, 1-13.
Soofiani, N.M. & Priede, I.G., 1984. Aerobic metabolic scope and swimming performance in juvenile cod, Gadus morhua L. Journal of Fish Biology, 26(2), 127 - 138.
Stork, T., 1983. PCB Levels Correlated with the Ulcus-syndromes in Cod (Gadus morhua L.). ICES Council Meeting Papers, ICES CM-1983/E: 50, 9.
Struminska, D.I. & Skwarzec, B., 2004. Plutonium concentrations in waters from the southern Baltic Sea and their distribution in cod (Gadus morhua) skin and gills. Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, 72(3), 355-361.
Sundby, S., 2000. Recruitment of Atlantic cod stocks in relation to temperature and advection of copepod populations. Sarsia, 85, 277-298.
Sutcliffe Jr., W.H., Loucks, R.H., Drinkwater, K.F. & Coote, A.R., 1983. Nutrient Flux onto the Labrador Shelf from Hudson Strait and its Biological Consequences.
Swain, D.P. & Sinclair, A.F., 2000. Pelagic fishes and the cod recruitment dilemma in the Northwest Atlantic. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 57, 1321-1325.
Szefer, P., Szefer, K. & Falandysz, J., 1990. Uranium and thorium in muscle tissue of fish taken from the southern Baltic.
Thurberg, F.P. & Gould, E., 2005. Pollutant Effects upon Cod, Haddock, Pollock, and Flounder of the Inshore Fisheries of Massachusetts and Cape Cod Bays. In The Decline of Fisheries Resources in New England Evaluating the Impact of Overfishing, Contamination, and Habitat Degradation, (eds. R. Buchsbaum, J. Pederson and W.E. Robinson), pp. 43-66. Cambridge, Massachusetts.
Tilseth, S., Solberg, T.S. & Westrheim, K., 1981. Sublethal Effects of the Water-soluble Fraction of Ekofisk Crude Oil on the Early Larval Stages of Cod (Gadus morhua L.). ICES Council Meeting Papers, ICES CM-1981/E: 52, 1-21.
Tilseth, S., Solberg, T.S. & Westrheim, K., 1984. Sublethal effects of the water-soluble fraction of Ekofisk crude oil on the early larval stages of cod (Gadus morhua L.). Marine Environmental Research, 11, 1-16.
Tupper, M. & Boutilier, R.G., 1995. Size and priority at settlement determine growth and competitive success of newly settled Atlantic cod. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 118, 295-300
Tyler, P., 1978. The influence of swimming performance on the metabolic rate of gadoid fish. In Physiology and behaviour of marine organisms: proceedings of the 12th European Symposium on Marine Biology, Stirling, Scotland, 5th-12th September, 1977 (eds. D.S. McLusky and A.J. Berry), pp. 83-92. Pergamon.
Uglem, I., Bjørn, P.A., Dale, T., Kerwath, S., Økland, F., Nilsen, R., Aas, K., Fleming, I. & McKinley, R.S., 2008. Movements and spatiotemporal distribution of escaped farmed and local wild Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua L.). Aquaculture Research, 39(2), 158 - 170.
Utne-Palm, A.C., 2002. Visual feeding of fish in a turbid environment: Physical and behavioural aspects. Marine and Freshwater Behaviour and Physiology, 35(1-2), 111 - 128
Vallin, L., Nissling, A. & Westin, L., 1999. Potential factors influencing reproductive success of Baltic cod, Gadus morhua: a review. Ambio, 28(1), 92-99.
Vos, G., Hovens, J.P.C. & Hagel, P., 1986. Chromium, nickel, copper, zinc, arsenic, selenium, cadmium, mercury and lead in Dutch fishery products 1977-1984. Science of The Total Environment, 52, 25-40.
Voss, R., Hinrichsen, H.-H. & Wieland, K., 2001. Model-supported estimation of mortality rates in Baltic cod (Gadus morhua callarias L.) larvae: the varying impact of 'critical periods'. Biomed Central Ecology, 1(4), 9.
Waller, U. & Rosenthal, H., 1995. The migratory behaviour of yolk-sack larvae of cod, Gadus morhua. ICES Council Meeting Papers, C.M.1995/L:14, 4p.
Westerberg, H., Ronnback, P. & Frimansson, H., 1996. Effects of suspended sediments on fish and fish egg and larvae on the behaviour of adult herring and cod. ICES Council Meeting Papers, C.M.1996/E:26, 13.
Westin, L. & Nissling, A., 1991. Effects of salinity on spermatozoa motility, percentage of fertilized eggs and egg development of Baltic cod (Gadus morhua), and implications for cod stock fluctuations in the Baltic. Marine Biology, 108(1), 5-9.
Wheeler, A., 1969. The fishes of the British Isles and north-west Europe. London: Macmillan.
Whitehead, P.J.P., Bauchot, M.-L., Hureau, J.-C., Nielson, J. & Tortonese, E. 1986. Fishes of the North-eastern Atlantic and the Mediterranean. Vol. I, II & III. Paris: United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO).
Wieland, K. & Jarre-Teichmann, A., 1997. Prediction of vertical distribution and ambient development temperature of Baltic cod (Gadus morhua L.) eggs. Fisheries Oceanography, 6(3), 172-183.
Woodhead, A.D., 1975. Endocrine physiology of fish migration. Oceanography and Marine Biology: An Annual Review, 13, 287-382.
Yaragina, N.A., Bogstad, B. & Kovalev, Y.A., 2009. Variability in cannibalism in Northeast Arctic cod (Gadus morhua) during the period 1947-2006. Marine Biology Research, 5(1), 75 - 85.
This review can be cited as:
Last Updated: 05/11/2004