information on the biology of species and the ecology of habitats found around the coasts and seas of the British Isles

Palmaria palmata on very exposed to moderately exposed lower eulittoral rock



UK and Ireland classification

UK and Ireland classification


Very exposed to moderately exposed lower eulittoral rock which supports a pure stand of dulse Palmaria palmata as a dense band or in large patches above the main kelp zone. Palmaria palmata favours shaded or overhanging rock and often forms a band at the top of overhanging rock. Relatively low abundance of other seaweeds, such as the red seaweed Porphyra umbilicalis or the green seaweeds Ulva intestinalis, Ulva lactuca and Cladophora rupestris may also occur in this biotope although Palmaria palmata always dominates. On the rock underneath the seaweed turf are the barnacle Semibalanus balanoides and the limpet Patella vulgata and the olive-green lichen Verrucaria mucosa. Sites should only be recorded as Pal where Palmaria palmata forms a distinct band or occurs in large patches on the shore (Connor et al., 2004).

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This review can be cited as:

Tillin, H.M. & Hill, J.M., 2016. [Palmaria palmata] on very exposed to moderately exposed lower eulittoral rock. In Tyler-Walters H. and Hiscock K. (eds) Marine Life Information Network: Biology and Sensitivity Key Information Reviews, [on-line]. Plymouth: Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom. [cited 19-06-2018]. Available from:

Last Updated: 08/02/2016