Laver spire shell (Peringia ulvae)

Distribution data supplied by the Ocean Biodiversity Information System (OBIS). To interrogate UK data visit the NBN Atlas.Map Help

Summary

Description

A small spiralling shell with six whorls. Up to 6 mm high but more typically around 4 mm. The shell is brown to yellow in colour. The body of the snail is a clear grey frequently with various pigment spots.

Recorded distribution in Britain and Ireland

Found on all British and Irish coasts

Global distribution

Atlantic, English Channel, North Sea and Baltic. Insufficient detail available to map distribution.

Habitat

Typically found on muddy sand, in estuaries and salt marshes. Sometimes also in lagoons and other areas of reduced salinity. Frequently associated with seagrass beds. Highest densities found mid-tidally but has been recorded down to 100 m depth.

Depth range

0-100

Identifying features

  • Very small brown spiral shell.
  • Whorls of shell not swollen.
  • Outer lip of operculum is straight where it meets the body whorl.
  • Tentacles have a rectangular, black mark near the tip.
  • Left tentacle thicker than the right.
  • The shape of the penis is the best identification feature
  • Larvae have characteristic conspicuous pigment cells in a v-shape on the foot.
  • Larval shell has longitudinal ridges.

Additional information

Many synonyms have been used in the past but Peringia ulvae is the only one used recently. Hydrobia ulvae is now the standard usage although Peringia is often used as a sub-genus of Hydrobia. Hydrobia neglecta has a black 'v' mark near the tip of the tentacles. The taxonomy of the Gastropoda has been recently revised (see Ponder & Lindberg 1997, and Taylor 1996). Ponder & Lindberg (1997) suggest that Mesogastropoda should be included in a monophyletic clade, the Caenogastropoda.

Listed by

- none -

Biology review

Taxonomy

LevelScientific nameCommon name
PhylumMollusca
ClassGastropoda
OrderLittorinimorpha
FamilyHydrobiidae
GenusPeringia
Authority(Pennant, 1777)
Recent SynonymsPeringia ulvae Peringia ulvae (Pennant, 1777)Hydrobia ulvae

Biology

ParameterData
Typical abundanceHigh density
Male size range0.3 - 6mm
Male size at maturity
Female size rangec. 1.5 - 2.0mm
Female size at maturity
Growth formTurbinate
Growth rateData deficient
Body flexibility
Mobility
Characteristic feeding methodNo information, Surface deposit feeder
Diet/food source
Typically feeds onDetritus, periphytic microalgae.
Sociability
Environmental positionEpifaunal
DependencyIndependent.
SupportsHost

over 50 species of digenean trematode.

Is the species harmful?No

No text entered

Biology information

The males can be distinguished by a visible penis. Frequently found in very high densities - has been recorded up to 300,000 per square metre. Growth rate varies with time of year and with degree of parasite infestation. Parasite infestation is believed to cause increased growth rates, gigantism and altered morphology in this species. Parasitised snails may reach up to 9mm in height. Parasitism also affects behaviour, slowing locomotion and reducing burrowing activity. The feeding method of Hydrobia ulvae can also be classified as 'microbrowser'.

Habitat preferences

ParameterData
Physiographic preferencesOpen coast, Sea loch or Sea lough, Ria or Voe, Estuary, Isolated saline water (Lagoon), Enclosed coast or Embayment, Open coast, Sea loch or Sea lough, Ria or Voe, Estuary, Isolated saline water (Lagoon), Enclosed coast or Embayment
Biological zone preferencesLower eulittoral, Lower infralittoral, Lower littoral fringe, Mid eulittoral, Sublittoral fringe, Upper eulittoral, Upper infralittoral, Upper littoral fringe, Lower eulittoral, Lower infralittoral, Lower littoral fringe, Mid eulittoral, Sublittoral fringe, Upper eulittoral, Upper infralittoral, Upper littoral fringe
Substratum / habitat preferencesMud, Muddy sand, Sandy mud, Mud, Muddy sand, Sandy mud
Tidal strength preferencesModerately strong 1 to 3 knots (0.5-1.5 m/sec.), Very weak (negligible), Weak < 1 knot (<0.5 m/sec.), Moderately strong 1 to 3 knots (0.5-1.5 m/sec.), Very weak (negligible), Weak < 1 knot (<0.5 m/sec.)
Wave exposure preferencesExtremely sheltered, Sheltered, Ultra sheltered, Very sheltered, Extremely sheltered, Sheltered, Ultra sheltered, Very sheltered
Salinity preferencesFull (30-40 psu), Low (<18 psu), Reduced (18-30 psu), Variable (18-40 psu), Full (30-40 psu), Low (<18 psu), Reduced (18-30 psu), Variable (18-40 psu)
Depth range0-100
Other preferencesNo text entered
Migration PatternNon-migratory or resident

Habitat Information

Often found as high as the high level strand line in a dried blanket of green algae. They appear to be dead but rapidly revive when returned to more suitable conditions. Hydrobia ulvae does not undertake any true migration but considerable dispersal is possible through floating at the surface using a mucous raft. A cycle of climbing, floating and crawling up and down the shore has been hypothesised. Work by Barnes (1981) suggests however that climbing is simply part of normal browsing behaviour.

Life history

Adult characteristics

ParameterData
Reproductive typeGonochoristic (dioecious)
Reproductive frequency Annual protracted
Fecundity (number of eggs)11-100
Generation timeInsufficient information
Age at maturity6 - 12 months
SeasonMarch - October
Life span1-2 years

Larval characteristics

ParameterData
Larval/propagule type-
Larval/juvenile development Lecithotrophic
Duration of larval stage11-30 days
Larval dispersal potential Greater than 10 km
Larval settlement periodInsufficient information

Life history information

The longevity of this species is debatable. Hydrobia ulvae may live up to five years in aquaria and over four years in the arctic. Various studies have suggested that it lives from just over 1 year up to 2.5 years. Individuals hatching from eggs laid in spring can breed in autumn, whereas those hatching in autumn overwinter before breeding in spring. The species is gonochoristic and sperm transfer occurs by copulation. Minimum egg hatching time has been recorded as five days. There is considerable conflicting evidence over the developmental mechanism of the larvae of this species. Some workers (Fish & Fish, 1977a,b) have found the planktonic stage to last up to four weeks and development to be entirely planktotrophic. Others (Pilkington, 1971) have found the planktonic stage to be completely absent with a nonfeeding benthic larva that metamorphoses after just two days. Snails producing planktotrophic forms have several (7-22) smaller eggs that hatch into veliger larvae at around 150 microns. Snails producing lecithotrophic forms lay fewer (3-7) larger eggs. Maximum number of eggs recorded from one mass is 50. The timing of the breeding season varies with latitude. In the north of Scotland there is a short spawning period in Spring. In populations further south the spawning period is more protracted and is split into two peaks (spring and autumn). Eggs are laid preferentially on the shells of live individuals of this species but also on empty shells and grains of sand. The egg mass acquires a protective layer of sand grains.

Sensitivity reviewHow is sensitivity assessed?

Physical pressures

Use / to open/close text displayed

 IntoleranceRecoverabilitySensitivityEvidence / Confidence
Substratum loss [Show more]

Substratum loss

Benchmark. All of the substratum occupied by the species or biotope under consideration is removed. A single event is assumed for sensitivity assessment. Once the activity or event has stopped (or between regular events) suitable substratum remains or is deposited. Species or community recovery assumes that the substratum within the habitat preferences of the original species or community is present. Further details

Evidence

Removal of the substratum will also result in the removal of the population. The breeding season is often quite protracted. The dispersive ability of the abundant pelagic larval form is considerable. Populations that have the benthic larval form will recover less rapidly. Adults can immigrate into the area by floating on a mucous raft.
High High Moderate Low
Smothering [Show more]

Smothering

Benchmark. All of the population of a species or an area of a biotope is smothered by sediment to a depth of 5 cm above the substratum for one month. Impermeable materials, such as concrete, oil, or tar, are likely to have a greater effect. Further details.

Evidence

For an epifaunal species, Hydrobia ulvae is quite tolerant of smothering. However, survival depends and several factors. The snail can only burrow up through certain sorts of sediment. If the silt content of the smothering sediment is high and the water content low then it is unlikely that the surface will be regained from 5 cm down. Looser sediment with high water and low silt content can be negotiated quite rapidly. The surface is generally regained within a day. If the surface cannot be regained then Hydrobia ulvae can survive burial for quite extended periods although this is highly temperature dependent. Temperatures of 20 degrees Centigrade result in all individuals dying after 10 days. Survival is much better at lower temperatures. It is thought that oxygen stress is the cause of mortality. The breeding season is often quite protracted. The dispersive ability of the abundant pelagic larval form is considerable. Adults can also immigrate into the area by floating on a mucous raft.
Intermediate Very high Low High
Increase in suspended sediment [Show more]

Increase in suspended sediment

Benchmark. An arbitrary short-term, acute change in background suspended sediment concentration e.g., a change of 100 mg/l for one month. The resultant light attenuation effects are addressed under turbidity, and the effects of rapid settling out of suspended sediment are addressed under smothering. Further details

Evidence

Detritus forms one of the main food sources for this species so increased siltation may be beneficial. As the snail lives in and on sediment, increases in sediment deposition will probably not affect locomotion.
Tolerant Not relevant Not sensitive Low
Decrease in suspended sediment [Show more]

Decrease in suspended sediment

Benchmark. An arbitrary short-term, acute change in background suspended sediment concentration e.g., a change of 100 mg/l for one month. The resultant light attenuation effects are addressed under turbidity, and the effects of rapid settling out of suspended sediment are addressed under smothering. Further details

Evidence

No information
Desiccation [Show more]

Desiccation

  1. A normally subtidal, demersal or pelagic species including intertidal migratory or under-boulder species is continuously exposed to air and sunshine for one hour.
  2. A normally intertidal species or community is exposed to a change in desiccation equivalent to a change in position of one vertical biological zone on the shore, e.g., from upper eulittoral to the mid eulittoral or from sublittoral fringe to lower eulittoral for a period of one year. Further details.

Evidence

When emersed and not active the snail part buries itself in the mud to reduce desiccation and temperature extremes. The species can tolerate desiccating conditions for extended periods. The snail can be left at the high strandline and not be covered by the tides for periods over a week without any adverse effects. Feeding and/or reproduction is limited during this time. Activity resumes as normal when the next spring tides wash the snails back into regular tidal coverage.
Low Immediate Not sensitive Moderate
Increase in emergence regime [Show more]

Increase in emergence regime

Benchmark. A one hour change in the time covered or not covered by the sea for a period of one year. Further details

Evidence

The snail is subject to highly variable emergence regimes anyway. Following any flotation on a mucous raft the snails location on the shore depends on where the previous tide left it. Feeding or reproduction may be hindered at higher elevations on the shore. Activity resumes as normal when the next spring tides wash the snails back into regular tidal coverage.
Low Immediate Not sensitive Moderate
Decrease in emergence regime [Show more]

Decrease in emergence regime

Benchmark. A one hour change in the time covered or not covered by the sea for a period of one year. Further details

Evidence

No information
Increase in water flow rate [Show more]

Increase in water flow rate

A change of two categories in water flow rate (view glossary) for 1 year, for example, from moderately strong (1-3 knots) to very weak (negligible). Further details

Evidence

This species prefers some water movement but is also found in isolated lagoons with negligible water flow. Decreases in water flow are unlikely to have any effect. Increases in water flow rate may restrict locomotion on the seabed, wash floating individuals elsewhere, continually displace individuals on the seabed and reduce the detritus available for feeding. The breeding season is often quite protracted. The dispersive ability of the abundant pelagic larval form is considerable. Adults can also immigrate into the area by floating on a mucous raft.
Intermediate Very high Low Moderate
Decrease in water flow rate [Show more]

Decrease in water flow rate

A change of two categories in water flow rate (view glossary) for 1 year, for example, from moderately strong (1-3 knots) to very weak (negligible). Further details

Evidence

No information
Increase in temperature [Show more]

Increase in temperature

  1. A short-term, acute change in temperature; e.g., a 5°C change in the temperature range for three consecutive days. This definition includes ‘short-term’ thermal discharges.
  2. A long-term, chronic change in temperature; e.g. a 2°C change in the temperature range for a year. This definition includes ‘long term’ thermal discharges.

For intertidal species or communities, the range of temperatures includes the air temperature regime for that species or community. Further details

Evidence

The species is quite tolerant of extremes in temperature. Can survive air temperatures below freezing. The snails can sometimes being exposed continuously to the air for several days between spring tides. This gives the potential for exposure to quite high air temperatures. Higher temperatures have been implicated in the proliferation of trematode parasites which have caused mass mortalities. The breeding season is often quite protracted. The dispersive ability of the abundant pelagic larval form is considerable. Adults can also immigrate into the area by floating on a mucous raft.
Intermediate Immediate Very Low
Decrease in temperature [Show more]

Decrease in temperature

  1. A short-term, acute change in temperature; e.g., a 5°C change in the temperature range for three consecutive days. This definition includes ‘short-term’ thermal discharges.
  2. A long-term, chronic change in temperature; e.g. a 2°C change in the temperature range for a year. This definition includes ‘long term’ thermal discharges.

For intertidal species or communities, the range of temperatures includes the air temperature regime for that species or community. Further details

Evidence

No information
Increase in turbidity [Show more]

Increase in turbidity

  1. A short-term, acute change; e.g., two categories of the water clarity scale (see glossary) for one month, such as from medium to extreme turbidity.
  2. A long-term, chronic change; e.g., one category of the water clarity scale (see glossary) for one year, such as from low to medium turbidity. Further details

Evidence

This species probably has very limited facility for visual perception and as such is unlikely affected by turbidity.
Tolerant Not relevant Not sensitive Low
Decrease in turbidity [Show more]

Decrease in turbidity

  1. A short-term, acute change; e.g., two categories of the water clarity scale (see glossary) for one month, such as from medium to extreme turbidity.
  2. A long-term, chronic change; e.g., one category of the water clarity scale (see glossary) for one year, such as from low to medium turbidity. Further details

Evidence

No information
Increase in wave exposure [Show more]

Increase in wave exposure

A change of two ranks on the wave exposure scale (view glossary) e.g., from Exposed to Extremely exposed for a period of one year. Further details

Evidence

The species tends not to inhabit particularly exposed areas primarily due to the lack of suitable muddy habitat. Decreases in wave exposure will have no effect. Increases in wave exposure are likely to kill the population either directly through physical damage, continual displacement and washing away or indirectly through change of substratum. The breeding season is often quite protracted. The dispersive ability of the abundant pelagic larval form is considerable. Populations that have the benthic larval form will recover less rapidly. Adults can immigrate into the area by floating on a mucous raft.
High High Moderate Low
Decrease in wave exposure [Show more]

Decrease in wave exposure

A change of two ranks on the wave exposure scale (view glossary) e.g., from Exposed to Extremely exposed for a period of one year. Further details

Evidence

No information
Noise [Show more]

Noise

  1. Underwater noise levels e.g., the regular passing of a 30-metre trawler at 100 metres or a working cutter-suction transfer dredge at 100 metres for one month during important feeding or breeding periods.
  2. Atmospheric noise levels e.g., the regular passing of a Boeing 737 passenger jet 300 metres overhead for one month during important feeding or breeding periods. Further details

Evidence

This species probably has very limited facility for vibration detection and as such is unlikely to be sensitive to noise.
Tolerant Not relevant Not sensitive High
Visual presence [Show more]

Visual presence

Benchmark. The continuous presence for one month of moving objects not naturally found in the marine environment (e.g., boats, machinery, and humans) within the visual envelope of the species or community under consideration. Further details

Evidence

This species probably has very limited facility for visual perception and as such is unlikely to be sensitive to visual presence.
Tolerant Not relevant Not sensitive High
Abrasion & physical disturbance [Show more]

Abrasion & physical disturbance

Benchmark. Force equivalent to a standard scallop dredge landing on or being dragged across the organism. A single event is assumed for assessment. This factor includes mechanical interference, crushing, physical blows against, or rubbing and erosion of the organism or habitat of interest. Where trampling is relevant, the evidence and trampling intensity will be reported in the rationale. Further details.

Evidence

The small nature of the species means that physical impact may cause death. Slight damage to the shell at the growing edge can probably be repaired. However, this species is very small and is likely to pass through a passing scallop dredge, or be pushed aside by an anchor. Physical disturbance is more likely to remove this species, its substratum (see above) or to displace individuals (see below). Therefore, an intolerance of low has been recorded. The breeding season is often quite protracted. The dispersive ability of the abundant pelagic larval form is considerable. Adults can also immigrate into the area by floating on a mucous raft.
Low Very high Very Low Low
Displacement [Show more]

Displacement

Benchmark. Removal of the organism from the substratum and displacement from its original position onto a suitable substratum. A single event is assumed for assessment. Further details

Evidence

The species is mobile and can disperse by floating on a mucous raft. Displacement will have no effect.
Tolerant Not relevant Not sensitive Low

Chemical pressures

Use [show more] / [show less] to open/close text displayed

 IntoleranceRecoverabilitySensitivityEvidence / Confidence
Synthetic compound contamination [Show more]

Synthetic compound contamination

Sensitivity is assessed against the available evidence for the effects of contaminants on the species (or closely related species at low confidence) or community of interest. For example:

  • evidence of mass mortality of a population of the species or community of interest (either short or long term) in response to a contaminant will be ranked as high sensitivity;
  • evidence of reduced abundance, or extent of a population of the species or community of interest (either short or long term) in response to a contaminant will be ranked as intermediate sensitivity;
  • evidence of sub-lethal effects or reduced reproductive potential of a population of the species or community of interest will be assessed as low sensitivity.

The evidence used is stated in the rationale. Where the assessment can be based on a known activity then this is stated. The tolerance to contaminants of species of interest will be included in the rationale when available; together with relevant supporting material. Further details.

Evidence

Reported as present in polluted waters, recorded from the Mersey estuary which is subject to industrial pollution.
Low Immediate Not sensitive Moderate
Heavy metal contamination [Show more]

Heavy metal contamination

Evidence

Insufficient
information
No information No information No information Not relevant
Hydrocarbon contamination [Show more]

Hydrocarbon contamination

Evidence

Information regarding Hydrobia ulvae in particular is not available although observations following the Amoco Cadiz oil spill at Roscoff showed that gastropod populations were greatly reduced. Populations had recovered a year later. The breeding season is often quite protracted. The dispersive ability of the abundant pelagic larval form is considerable. Adults can also immigrate into the area by floating on a mucous raft.
Intermediate Very high Low Moderate
Radionuclide contamination [Show more]

Radionuclide contamination

Evidence

Insufficient
information
No information No information No information Not relevant
Changes in nutrient levels [Show more]

Changes in nutrient levels

Evidence

Reported as present in polluted waters, recorded from the Mersey estuary which is subject to sewage pollution.
Low Immediate Not sensitive Moderate
Increase in salinity [Show more]

Increase in salinity

  1. A short-term, acute change; e.g., a change of two categories from the MNCR salinity scale for one week (view glossary) such as from full to reduced.
  2. A long-term, chronic change; e.g., a change of one category from the MNCR salinity scale for one year (view glossary) such as from reduced to low. Further details.

Evidence

The species is found in a wide range of salinities so changes of one or two salinity bands will be unlikely to have any effect.
Tolerant Not relevant Not sensitive Moderate
Decrease in salinity [Show more]

Decrease in salinity

  1. A short-term, acute change; e.g., a change of two categories from the MNCR salinity scale for one week (view glossary) such as from full to reduced.
  2. A long-term, chronic change; e.g., a change of one category from the MNCR salinity scale for one year (view glossary) such as from reduced to low. Further details.

Evidence

No information
Changes in oxygenation [Show more]

Changes in oxygenation

Benchmark.  Exposure to a dissolved oxygen concentration of 2 mg/l for one week. Further details.

Evidence

The species can live in conditions of reduced oxygen concentration but can die if combined with smothering or other stresses. The breeding season is often quite protracted. The dispersive ability of the abundant pelagic larval form is considerable. Adults can also immigrate into the area by floating on a mucous raft.
Intermediate Very high Low Moderate

Biological pressures

Use [show more] / [show less] to open/close text displayed

 IntoleranceRecoverabilitySensitivityEvidence / Confidence
Introduction of microbial pathogens/parasites [Show more]

Introduction of microbial pathogens/parasites

Benchmark. Sensitivity can only be assessed relative to a known, named disease, likely to cause partial loss of a species population or community. Further details.

Evidence

There are records of mass mortalities of Hydrobia ulvae caused by high temperatures triggering mass development of larval digenean trematodes within the snails. The breeding season is often quite protracted. The dispersive ability of the abundant pelagic larval form is considerable. Populations that have the benthic larval form will recover less rapidly. Adults can immigrate into the area by floating on a mucous raft.
High High Moderate Moderate
Introduction of non-native species [Show more]

Introduction of non-native species

Sensitivity assessed against the likely effect of the introduction of alien or non-native species in Britain or Ireland. Further details.

Evidence

Insufficient
information
No information No information No information Not relevant
Extraction of this species [Show more]

Extraction of this species

Benchmark. Extraction removes 50% of the species or community from the area under consideration. Sensitivity will be assessed as 'intermediate'. The habitat remains intact or recovers rapidly. Any effects of the extraction process on the habitat itself are addressed under other factors, e.g. displacement, abrasion and physical disturbance, and substratum loss. Further details.

Evidence

It is extremely unlikely that this species would be extracted.
Not relevant Not relevant Not relevant Low
Extraction of other species [Show more]

Extraction of other species

Benchmark. A species that is a required host or prey for the species under consideration (and assuming that no alternative host exists) or a keystone species in a biotope is removed. Any effects of the extraction process on the habitat itself are addressed under other factors, e.g. displacement, abrasion and physical disturbance, and substratum loss. Further details.

Evidence

This snail has no known obligate relationships with other species.
Tolerant Not relevant Not sensitive Low

Additional information

Importance review

Policy/legislation

- no data -

Status

Non-native

ParameterData
Native-
Origin-
Date Arrived-

Importance information

National status is not available but is almost certainly widespread. This species can occur in very high densities (up to 300,000 per square metre - levels at which considerable inter and intra specific competition can occur) Hydrobia ulvae may comprise up to 75 % of biomass and 90 % of macrofaunal energy flow may pass through it. Hydrobia ulvae does not form a known unique food source for any other species but it does form a dietary component of the opisthobranch mollusc Retusa obtusa. The hydroid Cordylophora caspia may grow on the shell. The species is occasionally used for scientific research.

Bibliography

  1. Anderson, A., 1971. Intertidal activity, breeding and the floating habit of Hydrobia ulvae in the Ythan estuary. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 51, 423-437.

  2. Barnes, R.S.K., 1981. An experimental study of the pattern and significance of the climbing behaviour of Hydrobia ulvae. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 61, 285-299.

  3. Barnes, R.S.K., 1988. On reproductive strategies in adjacent lagoonal and intertidal marine populations of the gastropod Hydrobia ulvae. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 68, 365-375.

  4. Barnes, R.S.K., 1990. Reproductive strategies in the contrasting populations of the coastal gastropod Hydrobia ulvae. II. Longevity and lifetime egg production. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 138, 183-200.

  5. Bradshaw, C., Veale, L.O., Hill, A.S. & Brand, A.R., 2002. The role of scallop-dredge disturbance in long-term changes in Irish Sea benthic communities: a re-analysis of an historical dataset. Journal of Sea Research, 47, 161-184. DOI https://doi.org/10.1016/S1385-1101(02)00096-5

  6. Chandrasekara, W.U. & Frid, C.L.J., 1998. A laboratory assessment of the survival and vertical movement of two epibenthic gastropod species, Hydrobia ulvae, (Pennant) and Littorina littorea (Linnaeus), after burial in sediment. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 221, 191-207.

  7. Clay, E., 1960. Literature survey of the common fauna of estuaries. 8. Hydrobia ulvae (Pennant), Hydrobia ventrosa (Montagu) and Potamopyrgus jenkinsi (Smith). Imperial Chemical Industries Ltd, Paints Division, Research Department Memorandum PVM45/B/483.

  8. Fish, J.D. & Fish, S., 1974. The breeding cycle and growth of Hydrobia ulvae in the Dovey estuary. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 54, 685-697.

  9. Fish, J.D. & Fish, S., 1977a. The veliger larva of Hydrobia ulvae with observations on the veliger of Littorina littorea (Mollusca: Prosobranchia). Journal of Zoology, 182, 495-503.

  10. Fish, J.D. & Fish, S., 1977b. The effects of temperature and salinity on embryonic development of Hydrobia ulvae. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 57, 213-218.

  11. Fish, J.D., 1979. The yellow pigment cells of Hydrobia ulvae (Pennant) (Mollusca: Prosobranchia). Journal of Molluscan Studies, 45, 345-352.

  12. Fretter, V. & Graham, A., 1994. British prosobranch molluscs: their functional anatomy and ecology, revised and updated edition. London: The Ray Society.

  13. Graham, A., 1988. Molluscs: prosobranchs and pyramellid gastropods (2nd ed.). Leiden: E.J. Brill/Dr W. Backhuys. [Synopses of the British Fauna No. 2]

  14. Howson, C.M. & Picton, B.E., 1997. The species directory of the marine fauna and flora of the British Isles and surrounding seas. Belfast: Ulster Museum. [Ulster Museum publication, no. 276.]

  15. Huxham, M., Raffaelli, D. & Pike, A.W., 1995. The effect of larval trematodes on the growth and burrowing behaviour of Hydrobia ulvae (Gastropoda: Prosobranchia) in the Ythan estuary, N.E. Scotland. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 185, 1-17.

  16. Jensen, K.T. & Mouritsen K.N., 1992. Mass mortality in two common soft bottom invertebrates, Hydrobia ulvae and Corophium volutator, the possible role of trematodes. Helgolander Meeresuntersuchungen, 46, 329-339.

  17. Pilkington, M.C., 1971. The veliger stage of Hydrobia ulvae (Pennant). Proceedings of the Malacological Society of London, 39, 281-287.

  18. Ponder, W.F. & Lindberg, D.R., 1997. Towards a phylogeny of gastropod molluscs: an analysis using morphological characters. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 119, 83-265.

  19. Sola, J.C., 1996. Population dynamics, reproduction and growth and secondary production of the mud snail Hydrobia ulvae (Pennant) Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 205, 49-62.

  20. Taylor, J.D.(ed.), 1996. Origin and Evolutionary Radiation of the Mollusca. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Datasets

  1. Bristol Regional Environmental Records Centre, 2017. BRERC species records recorded over 15 years ago. Occurrence dataset: https://doi.org/10.15468/h1ln5p accessed via GBIF.org on 2018-09-25.

  2. Bristol Regional Environmental Records Centre, 2017. BRERC species records within last 15 years. Occurrence dataset: https://doi.org/10.15468/vntgox accessed via GBIF.org on 2018-09-25.

  3. Centre for Environmental Data and Recording, 2018. Ulster Museum Marine Surveys of Northern Ireland Coastal Waters. Occurrence dataset https://www.nmni.com/CEDaR/CEDaR-Centre-for-Environmental-Data-and-Recording.aspx accessed via NBNAtlas.org on 2018-09-25.

  4. Conchological Society of Great Britain & Ireland, 2017. Mollusc (non-marine): 1999 Atlas Dataset for Great Britain and Ireland. Occurrence dataset: https://doi.org/10.15468/gbawsj accessed via GBIF.org on 2018-09-25.

  5. Conchological Society of Great Britain & Ireland, 2018. Mollusc (marine) data for Great Britain and Ireland - restricted access. Occurrence dataset: https://doi.org/10.15468/4bsawx accessed via GBIF.org on 2018-09-25.

  6. Conchological Society of Great Britain & Ireland, 2018. Mollusc (marine) records for Great Britain and Ireland. Occurrence dataset: https://doi.org/10.15468/aurwcz accessed via GBIF.org on 2018-09-25.

  7. Conchological Society of Great Britain & Ireland, 2018. Mollusc (non-marine) data for Great Britain and Ireland. Occurrence dataset: https://doi.org/10.15468/6dexp9 accessed via GBIF.org on 2018-09-25.

  8. Conchological Society of Great Britain & Ireland, 2018. Mollusc (non-marine) data for the Channel Islands. Occurrence dataset: https://www.conchsoc.org/accessed via GBIF.org on 2018-09-25.

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  10. Environmental Records Information Centre North East, 2018. ERIC NE Combined dataset to 2017. Occurrence dataset: http://www.ericnortheast.org.ukl accessed via NBNAtlas.org on 2018-09-38

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  12. Kent Wildlife Trust, 2018. Kent Wildlife Trust Shoresearch Intertidal Survey 2004 onwards. Occurrence dataset: https://www.kentwildlifetrust.org.uk/ accessed via NBNAtlas.org on 2018-10-01.

  13. Lancashire Environment Record Network, 2018. LERN Records. Occurrence dataset: https://doi.org/10.15468/esxc9a accessed via GBIF.org on 2018-10-01.

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  19. OBIS (Ocean Biodiversity Information System),  2024. Global map of species distribution using gridded data. Available from: Ocean Biogeographic Information System. www.iobis.org. Accessed: 2024-02-23

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Citation

This review can be cited as:

Jackson, A. 2000. Peringia ulvae Laver spire shell. In Tyler-Walters H. Marine Life Information Network: Biology and Sensitivity Key Information Reviews, [on-line]. Plymouth: Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom. [cited 23-02-2024]. Available from: https://www.marlin.ac.uk/species/detail/1295

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Last Updated: 17/02/2000