Killer whale (Orcinus orca)
|Researched by||John Bleach||Refereed by||Admin|
|Other common names||-||Synonyms||-|
Recorded distribution in Britain and IrelandShetlands, north and west Scotland. Irish coastline and south and west coasts of England and Wales.
HabitatUsually found in deep water, although it may enter shallow water to catch prey.
- Up to 9 m in length with a blunt snout.
- Distinctive black and white colouring, with white belly, throat and patch behind eyes.
- Large dorsal fin, up to 1.8 m high.
- Large paddle-like flippers.
Additional informationThe orca is the largest species of dolphin. It is also referred to as the killer whale. It is a fast swimmer, reaching speeds in excess of 30 knots. It feeds on squid, octopus, fish, seals and other smaller dolphins and may eat seabirds and marine turtles occasionally.
Orcinus orca is listed in the Red list of threatened animals (IUCN, 2003) as of Lower Risk (LR) but dependant on conservation effort. Orcinus orca is included within the grouped Species Action Plan "toothed whales (other than small dolphins)" under the UK Biodiversity Action Plan (Anon, 1999x). The killer whale is listed under Appendix II of the Bern convention. All species of cetaceans are given protection under the Wildlife & Countryside Act 1981 and the Wildlife (Northern Ireland) Order 1985 (Anon, 1999x). All cetacean species are listed on Annex IV (Animal and Plant Species of Community Interest in Need of Strict Protection) of the EC Habitats Directive (Anon, 1999x). All whales are listed on Annex A of EU Council Regulation 338/97 and therefore treated by the EU as if they are on CITES Appendix I thus prohibiting their commercial trade (Anon, 1999x).Whaling is illegal in UK waters (Fisheries Act 1981) but neighbouring countries maintain the right to hunt (Anon, 1999x). An 'Agreement on the Conservation of Small Cetaceans in the Baltic and North Seas' (ASCOBANS), formulated in 1992, has now been signed by seven European countries, including the UK. Under the Agreement, provision is made for protection of specific areas, monitoring, research, information exchange, pollution control and heightening public awareness. Although aimed primarily at dolphins and porpoises, ASCOBANS includes all toothed whales except the sperm whale (Anon, 1999x). The killer whale is also listed on Appendix II of the Bonn Convention on the Conservation of Migratory species of Wild Animals (Anon, 1999x).
- Berne Convention
- Conservation of Habitat and Species Regulations
- UK & NI Wildlife & Countryside Act
- UK Biodiversity Action Plan Priority
- Species of principal importance (England)
- Scottish Biodiversity List
- IUCN Red List
- Priority Marine Features (Scotland)
- Convention on Migratory Species
- Conservation on Natural Habitats 1994
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This review can be cited as:
Last Updated: 16/10/2006