Bowerbank's halichondria (Halichondria (Halichondria) bowerbanki)

Distribution data supplied by the Ocean Biodiversity Information System (OBIS). To interrogate UK data visit the NBN Atlas.Map Help

Summary

Description

The growth form varies from thin to massively encrusting, with tassel-like irregular branches which form flattened masses. Colonies can be up to 25 cm across with branches reaching 12 cm high. It is beige to dull brown in the summer, and light grey/yellow in the winter. It typically turns a characteristic yellow-orange when spawning because of the colour of the larvae. There are no obvious large exhalent openings (oscules) present and the surface is smooth or uneven with a breadcrumb-like texture.

Recorded distribution in Britain and Ireland

Commonly found in southern England, Pembrokeshire and north-west Wales, also frequently found in western Scotland. Isolated records from the North Sea.

Global distribution

Present on both sides of the North Atlantic. In Europe, it has been reported south to Brittany and is found in the south-west Netherlands and in harbours of the Wadden Sea. It is a non-native species in North America.

Habitat

Present on rocky surfaces in the shallow subtidal, with occasional intertidal specimens under overhanging rocks. Halichondria bowerbanki occupies wave-sheltered, sediment-rich environments. It often grows intertwined with hydroids and algae and may be common in estuaries. May occur in areas sheltered from strong tidal flow through to tidal sounds.

Depth range

0 to 90 m

Identifying features

  • Characteristic stringy appearance.
  • Breadcrumb-like texture.
  • No apparent exhalent openings.
  • Colour variable but often yellowish beige in colour.

Additional information

Microscopic examination of the spicules reveals that they are relatively long and thin, and taper to the apices. Named after James S. Bowerbank (1797-1877), a pioneering authority on sponges. Easily confused with Halichondria panicea but Halichondria bowerbanki is distinguished by the absence of the chimney-like oscules that occur in Halichondria panicea.

Listed by

- none -

Biology review

Taxonomy

LevelScientific nameCommon name
PhylumPorifera
ClassDemospongiae
OrderSuberitida
FamilyHalichondriidae
GenusHalichondria
AuthorityBurton, 1930
Recent SynonymsHalichondria bowerbanki

Biology

ParameterData
Typical abundanceData deficient
Male size range<25 cm
Male size at maturityData deficient
Female size range<25 cm
Female size at maturityData deficient
Growth formCrustose soft
Growth rate1.1 mm / day (in summer)
Body flexibilityHigh (greater than 45 degrees)
MobilitySessile, permanent attachment
Characteristic feeding methodActive suspension feeder, Passive suspension feeder
Diet/food sourceNo information
Typically feeds onFine suspended organic matter
SociabilityColonial
Environmental positionEpifaunal, Epilithic
DependencyInsufficient information.
SupportsNo information
Is the species harmful?No

Biology information

Under optimal conditions (and with a low sample number) Vethaak et al. (1982) recorded a mean length increase of 1.1 mm / day in summer and no growth in winter. Vethaak et al. (1982) identified five distinct growth forms (plus intermediate forms) including encrusting, bush-like and massive forms.  They reported a maximum colony size of 25 cm width to 12 cm high although most colonies are rarely this big.

In some sheltered locations, the branches grow over other species and loop like bramble stolons attaching to any suitable object they encounter. Found to house a large community of associated amphipod species which show seasonal variation (Biernbaum, 1981). The green filamentous algae Microspora ficulinae lives in association with the tissues of Halichondria bowerbanki.

Habitat preferences

ParameterData
Physiographic preferencesEstuary, Isolated saline water (Lagoon), Ria or Voe, Strait or Sound
Biological zone preferencesCircalittoral, Infralittoral, Sublittoral fringe
Substratum / habitat preferencesOverhangs
Tidal strength preferencesModerately strong 1 to 3 knots (0.5-1.5 m/sec.), Strong 3 to 6 knots (1.5-3 m/sec.), Weak < 1 knot (<0.5 m/sec.)
Wave exposure preferencesSheltered
Salinity preferencesFull (30-40 psu), Reduced (18-30 psu)
Depth range0 to 90 m
Other preferences
Migration PatternNon-migratory or resident

Habitat Information

Occurs in muddy environments where the similar sponge Halichondria panicea cannot survive. It reaches its best development in harbours.  In the Oosterschelde, Halichondria bowerbanki was found growing on tunicates (especially Styela clava), molluscs and, in a brackish lagoon, on small reefs of Electra crustulenta (Vethaak et al., 1982). In the United Kingdom, Halichondria bowerbanki (studied as Halichondria coalita) was recorded to depths of 90 m (Bowerbank, 1874, cited in Vethaak et al., 1982).

Life history

Adult characteristics

ParameterData
Reproductive typeSee additional information
Reproductive frequency No information
Fecundity (number of eggs)Data deficient
Generation timeInsufficient information
Age at maturityNo information
SeasonNo information
Life spanInsufficient information

Larval characteristics

ParameterData
Larval/propagule typeParenchymella
Larval/juvenile development Viviparous (Parental Care)
Duration of larval stageNo information
Larval dispersal potential No information
Larval settlement periodInsufficient information

Life history information

In the Oosterschelde, large oocytes and embryos found from early August until mid-October which coincided with a drop in water temperature from maximal summer values to about 14°C (Vethaak et al., 1982). Wapstra & van Soest (1987) recorded that Halichondria bowerbanki from the same area contained oocytes from April through to November although embryos were only observed from June to November. Newly settled colonies were seen within just over a year, i.e. the following September and October (Vethaak et al., 1982). Wapstra & van Soest (1982) noted that it was possible that Halichondria bowerbanki could be protandrous or protogynous hermaphrodites. 

No information was found concerning the lifespan of Halichondria bowerbanki, although a lifespan of about 3 years was suggested for the closely related Halichondria panicea in Fish & Fish (1996). Halichondria bowerbanki survives over the winter months as a dormant form with no growth and a disintegration of tissue. In the Oosterschelde, this species experienced a drastic reduction in biomass during the severe winter of 1978/9, especially in the intertidal (Vethaak et al., 1982).

Sensitivity reviewHow is sensitivity assessed?

Physical pressures

Use / to open/close text displayed

 IntoleranceRecoverabilitySensitivityEvidence / Confidence
Substratum loss [Show more]

Substratum loss

Benchmark. All of the substratum occupied by the species or biotope under consideration is removed. A single event is assumed for sensitivity assessment. Once the activity or event has stopped (or between regular events) suitable substratum remains or is deposited. Species or community recovery assumes that the substratum within the habitat preferences of the original species or community is present. Further details

Evidence

The sponge is attached to the substratum and is unlikely to survive substratum loss. However, settlement of new colonies is likely within one year and growth rate is almost certainly rapid. Therefore, intolerance and recoverability have been recorded as high.

High High Moderate Moderate
Smothering [Show more]

Smothering

Benchmark. All of the population of a species or an area of a biotope is smothered by sediment to a depth of 5 cm above the substratum for one month. Impermeable materials, such as concrete, oil, or tar, are likely to have a greater effect. Further details.

Evidence

Halichondria bowerbanki has extensive erect tasselated growths that will most likely extend above settled silt. In the Oosterschelde, Halichondria bowerbanki has been found growing covered in silt and debris (Vethaak et al., 1982), therefore the colony will most likely survive smothering by silt at the level of the benchmark. However, there may be significant inhibition of feeding and respiration and small colonies may suffer mortality if deoxygenation below the silt occurs. On balance, therefore, an intolerance of intermediate has been suggested. However, settlement of new colonies is likely within one year and growth rate is most likely rapid. Hence, a recoverability of high has been recorded.
Intermediate High Low Low
Increase in suspended sediment [Show more]

Increase in suspended sediment

Benchmark. An arbitrary short-term, acute change in background suspended sediment concentration e.g., a change of 100 mg/l for one month. The resultant light attenuation effects are addressed under turbidity, and the effects of rapid settling out of suspended sediment are addressed under smothering. Further details

Evidence

Halichondria bowerbanki lives in situations such as the entrance to estuaries and in harbours where suspended sediment levels and settlement of silt is often high. The similar sponge Halichondria panicea has a mechanism for sloughing off their complete outer tissue layer together with any debris (Bartel & Wolfrath, 1989). It is expected that the sponge can, therefore, cope with increased siltation rates and suspended sediment.  However, there is probably an energetic cost in clearing sediment from tissues and an intolerance of low has been recorded.
Low Immediate Not sensitive High
Decrease in suspended sediment [Show more]

Decrease in suspended sediment

Benchmark. An arbitrary short-term, acute change in background suspended sediment concentration e.g., a change of 100 mg/l for one month. The resultant light attenuation effects are addressed under turbidity, and the effects of rapid settling out of suspended sediment are addressed under smothering. Further details

Evidence

The sponge may derive some benefit from organic matter as food in the suspended sediment but there is probably an energetic cost in clearing sediment from tissues. On balance, tolerant is suggested.

Tolerant Not relevant Not sensitive Moderate
Desiccation [Show more]

Desiccation

  1. A normally subtidal, demersal or pelagic species including intertidal migratory or under-boulder species is continuously exposed to air and sunshine for one hour.
  2. A normally intertidal species or community is exposed to a change in desiccation equivalent to a change in position of one vertical biological zone on the shore, e.g., from upper eulittoral to the mid eulittoral or from sublittoral fringe to lower eulittoral for a period of one year. Further details.

Evidence

Halichondria bowerbanki may occur under overhangs and in damp places on the lower shore but does not live in such open conditions as Halichondria panicea. Desiccation would be likely to have a significant adverse effect on the sponge with bleaching and tissue death likely at the edges of the colony. Regrowth will most likely occur rapidly as growth is likely from remaining tissue or settlement. However, for the level of the benchmark, an intolerance of intermediate is suggested with a recoverability of high.

Intermediate High Low Low
Increase in emergence regime [Show more]

Increase in emergence regime

Benchmark. A one hour change in the time covered or not covered by the sea for a period of one year. Further details

Evidence

Desiccation is likely to be the main impact of increased emergence and established colonies are likely to be significantly damaged and lost at the upper limit of their intertidal range. The species prefers subtidal habitats and Vethaak et al. (1982) described intertidal colonies of Halichondria bowerbanki in the Oosterschelde as undersized. Where emergence is increased, intertidal colonies will most likely be killed and so, with reference to intertidal colonies, intolerance is assessed as high.

High High Moderate Low
Decrease in emergence regime [Show more]

Decrease in emergence regime

Benchmark. A one hour change in the time covered or not covered by the sea for a period of one year. Further details

Evidence

The species is mainly subtidal so that a decrease in emergence that makes intertidal species subtidal will benefit the species.

Tolerant* Not relevant Not sensitive* High
Increase in water flow rate [Show more]

Increase in water flow rate

A change of two categories in water flow rate (view glossary) for 1 year, for example, from moderately strong (1-3 knots) to very weak (negligible). Further details

Evidence

Halichondria bowerbanki is tolerant of various hydrographic regimes (Vethaak et al., 1982). The species is found in locations exposed to strong tidal flow but, where it is growing in habitats where tidal streams are normally weak, an increase in flow may result in damage to the colonies through tearing-off of erect structures or by poorly attached massive growths being swept away. The substratum may also be dislodged in part through the drag caused by the sponge. Feeding may be inhibited by strong flow.  However, damage is likely to be rapidly repaired (see Bowerbank, 1857) and mortality is unlikely to be total with re-growth occurring once water flow rates return to normal. An intolerance of intermediate with a very high recovery has been suggested.

Intermediate Very high Low High
Decrease in water flow rate [Show more]

Decrease in water flow rate

A change of two categories in water flow rate (view glossary) for 1 year, for example, from moderately strong (1-3 knots) to very weak (negligible). Further details

Evidence

Halichondria bowerbanki has been recorded in isolated lagoons with no water movement in the Oosterschelde (Vethaak et al., 1982).  Although small in its upper range, larger specimens were found growing lower down. A reduction in water flow rates in situations sheltered from wave action may lead to a reduced food supply and possible local de-oxygenation although in general, an intolerance of low has been suggested since mortality is unlikely.

Low Immediate Not sensitive Low
Increase in temperature [Show more]

Increase in temperature

  1. A short-term, acute change in temperature; e.g., a 5°C change in the temperature range for three consecutive days. This definition includes ‘short-term’ thermal discharges.
  2. A long-term, chronic change in temperature; e.g. a 2°C change in the temperature range for a year. This definition includes ‘long term’ thermal discharges.

For intertidal species or communities, the range of temperatures includes the air temperature regime for that species or community. Further details

Evidence

Halichondria bowerbanki has a wide distribution in the north-east Atlantic with Britain and Ireland central to that distribution so that the species exists well-within its normal temperature survival range.

Tolerant Not relevant Not sensitive Moderate
Decrease in temperature [Show more]

Decrease in temperature

  1. A short-term, acute change in temperature; e.g., a 5°C change in the temperature range for three consecutive days. This definition includes ‘short-term’ thermal discharges.
  2. A long-term, chronic change in temperature; e.g. a 2°C change in the temperature range for a year. This definition includes ‘long term’ thermal discharges.

For intertidal species or communities, the range of temperatures includes the air temperature regime for that species or community. Further details

Evidence

Halichondria bowerbanki has a wide distribution in the north-east Atlantic with Britain and Ireland central to that distribution so that the species exists well-within its normal temperature survival range.

Tolerant Not relevant Not sensitive Moderate
Increase in turbidity [Show more]

Increase in turbidity

  1. A short-term, acute change; e.g., two categories of the water clarity scale (see glossary) for one month, such as from medium to extreme turbidity.
  2. A long-term, chronic change; e.g., one category of the water clarity scale (see glossary) for one year, such as from low to medium turbidity. Further details

Evidence

Halichondria bowerbanki was found to occur in higher population densities on more shaded and totally dark surfaces compared to well lit areas in the Oosterschelde (Vethaak et al., 1982). It may extend its range to shallow areas previously dominated by algae if turbidity increases. However, change in turbidity may be caused by increased suspended sediment levels which may clog feeding pores or cause expenditure of energy to clean colonies (see Increase in suspended sediment above). On balance, 'tolerant' is suggested.

Tolerant Not relevant Not sensitive Low
Decrease in turbidity [Show more]

Decrease in turbidity

  1. A short-term, acute change; e.g., two categories of the water clarity scale (see glossary) for one month, such as from medium to extreme turbidity.
  2. A long-term, chronic change; e.g., one category of the water clarity scale (see glossary) for one year, such as from low to medium turbidity. Further details

Evidence

Halichondria bowerbanki occurs in low light levels and algae may encroach the upper limits of its range if turbidity declines and light levels increase. If the change in turbidity is caused by decreased suspended sediment levels, sponges will expend less energy in cleaning. On balance, tolerant is suggested.

Tolerant Not relevant Not sensitive Moderate
Increase in wave exposure [Show more]

Increase in wave exposure

A change of two ranks on the wave exposure scale (view glossary) e.g., from Exposed to Extremely exposed for a period of one year. Further details

Evidence

The shape of sponge colonies is influenced heavily by the hydrodynamics of the environment and, in ‘high stress’ environments such as very wave exposed areas, the colonies are often undersized or encrusting (Vethaak et al., 1982). Colonies of Halichondria bowerbanki live in areas sheltered from wave action and, where wave exposure increases, some large and poorly attached colonies may be displaced. For a closely related species, Halichondria panicea, the growth rate is rapid (about 5% increase per month: Barthel, 1988) and recovery would be expected to occur quickly after reversion to previous conditions. Intolerance is assessed as intermediate and recoverability as high.

Intermediate High Low Low
Decrease in wave exposure [Show more]

Decrease in wave exposure

A change of two ranks on the wave exposure scale (view glossary) e.g., from Exposed to Extremely exposed for a period of one year. Further details

Evidence

Colonies of Halichondria bowerbanki thrive in areas sheltered from wave action so that they would be expected to benefit from a decrease in wave action.

Tolerant* Not relevant Not sensitive* High
Noise [Show more]

Noise

  1. Underwater noise levels e.g., the regular passing of a 30-metre trawler at 100 metres or a working cutter-suction transfer dredge at 100 metres for one month during important feeding or breeding periods.
  2. Atmospheric noise levels e.g., the regular passing of a Boeing 737 passenger jet 300 metres overhead for one month during important feeding or breeding periods. Further details

Evidence

Sponges have no known receptors for noise.

Tolerant Not relevant Not sensitive High
Visual presence [Show more]

Visual presence

Benchmark. The continuous presence for one month of moving objects not naturally found in the marine environment (e.g., boats, machinery, and humans) within the visual envelope of the species or community under consideration. Further details

Evidence

Sponges have no known visual receptors.

Tolerant Not relevant Not sensitive High
Abrasion & physical disturbance [Show more]

Abrasion & physical disturbance

Benchmark. Force equivalent to a standard scallop dredge landing on or being dragged across the organism. A single event is assumed for assessment. This factor includes mechanical interference, crushing, physical blows against, or rubbing and erosion of the organism or habitat of interest. Where trampling is relevant, the evidence and trampling intensity will be reported in the rationale. Further details.

Evidence

The sponge is attached to the substratum and is unlikely to survive abrasion and physical disturbance.  However, where merely damaged, repair is likely to occur very rapidly as in the related Halichondria panicea (Bowerbank, 1857) whilst settlement of new colonies is likely within one year and growth rate is rapid.  Sponges may also regrow from tissue remaining in crevices or other irregularities and that were not affected by the abrasion. Therefore, an intolerance of intermediate is suggested with a recoverability of high.

Intermediate High Low Moderate
Displacement [Show more]

Displacement

Benchmark. Removal of the organism from the substratum and displacement from its original position onto a suitable substratum. A single event is assumed for assessment. Further details

Evidence

The sponge is attached to the substratum and is unlikely to survive being detached and displaced even though it remains in the area unless the location is very sheltered from disturbing conditions such as wave action. It is possible that detached colonies that become trapped under boulders or in fissures may re-attach. Settlement of new colonies is likely within one year and the growth rate is rapid. Sponges may also regrow from tissue remaining in crevices or other irregularities and that were not affected by the displacement.

High High Moderate Moderate

Chemical pressures

Use [show more] / [show less] to open/close text displayed

 IntoleranceRecoverabilitySensitivityEvidence / Confidence
Synthetic compound contamination [Show more]

Synthetic compound contamination

Sensitivity is assessed against the available evidence for the effects of contaminants on the species (or closely related species at low confidence) or community of interest. For example:

  • evidence of mass mortality of a population of the species or community of interest (either short or long term) in response to a contaminant will be ranked as high sensitivity;
  • evidence of reduced abundance, or extent of a population of the species or community of interest (either short or long term) in response to a contaminant will be ranked as intermediate sensitivity;
  • evidence of sub-lethal effects or reduced reproductive potential of a population of the species or community of interest will be assessed as low sensitivity.

The evidence used is stated in the rationale. Where the assessment can be based on a known activity then this is stated. The tolerance to contaminants of species of interest will be included in the rationale when available; together with relevant supporting material. Further details.

Evidence

Insufficient
information.

No information Not relevant No information Not relevant
Heavy metal contamination [Show more]

Heavy metal contamination

Evidence

Insufficient
information.

No information Not relevant No information Not relevant
Hydrocarbon contamination [Show more]

Hydrocarbon contamination

Evidence

Very little information has been found. It appears that the similar species Halichondria panicea survived in areas affected by the Torrey Canyon oil spill (Smith, 1968), although few observations were made. If mortality occurred, settlement of new colonies is likely within one year and growth rate is rapid.

Low High Low Low
Radionuclide contamination [Show more]

Radionuclide contamination

Evidence

Insufficient
information.

No information Not relevant No information Not relevant
Changes in nutrient levels [Show more]

Changes in nutrient levels

Evidence

Insufficient
information.

Not relevant Not relevant No information Not relevant
Increase in salinity [Show more]

Increase in salinity

  1. A short-term, acute change; e.g., a change of two categories from the MNCR salinity scale for one week (view glossary) such as from full to reduced.
  2. A long-term, chronic change; e.g., a change of one category from the MNCR salinity scale for one year (view glossary) such as from reduced to low. Further details.

Evidence

Halichondria bowerbanki is euryhaline (Vethaak et al., 1982) and occurs in areas subject to full and low salinity and tolerant has been suggested.

Tolerant Not relevant Not sensitive Low
Decrease in salinity [Show more]

Decrease in salinity

  1. A short-term, acute change; e.g., a change of two categories from the MNCR salinity scale for one week (view glossary) such as from full to reduced.
  2. A long-term, chronic change; e.g., a change of one category from the MNCR salinity scale for one year (view glossary) such as from reduced to low. Further details.

Evidence

Halichondria bowerbanki is euryhaline and has been recorded in polyhaline lagoons in the Oosterschelde (Vethaak et al., 1982). It seems likely that it will survive acute changes for a few days because the sponge grows in areas subject to high freshwater outflow in periods of heavy river flow and, overall, tolerant has been suggested.

Tolerant Not relevant Not sensitive Low
Changes in oxygenation [Show more]

Changes in oxygenation

Benchmark.  Exposure to a dissolved oxygen concentration of 2 mg/l for one week. Further details.

Evidence

Halichondria bowerbanki lives in areas of flowing water, which suggests that it is likely to need a good supply of oxygen for survival. Cole et al. (1999) suggest possible adverse effects on marine species below 4 mg/l and probable adverse effects below 2mg/l.   However, no information was found concerning the tolerance of Halichondria bowerbanki to changes in oxygenation. Settlement of new colonies is likely within one year and the growth rate is rapid.

Intermediate High Low Low

Biological pressures

Use [show more] / [show less] to open/close text displayed

 IntoleranceRecoverabilitySensitivityEvidence / Confidence
Introduction of microbial pathogens/parasites [Show more]

Introduction of microbial pathogens/parasites

Benchmark. Sensitivity can only be assessed relative to a known, named disease, likely to cause partial loss of a species population or community. Further details.

Evidence

No literature was found concerning diseases and parasites in Halichondria bowerbanki. The similar sponge Halichondria panicea has a mechanism for sloughing off the outer tissue layer (Bartel & Wolfrath, 1989) which may also be a means of removing pathogens or epizooites.

No information Not relevant No information Not relevant
Introduction of non-native species [Show more]

Introduction of non-native species

Sensitivity assessed against the likely effect of the introduction of alien or non-native species in Britain or Ireland. Further details.

Evidence

There are no alien species currently known to compete with or adversely affect Halichondria bowerbanki.

Tolerant Not relevant Not sensitive Low
Extraction of this species [Show more]

Extraction of this species

Benchmark. Extraction removes 50% of the species or community from the area under consideration. Sensitivity will be assessed as 'intermediate'. The habitat remains intact or recovers rapidly. Any effects of the extraction process on the habitat itself are addressed under other factors, e.g. displacement, abrasion and physical disturbance, and substratum loss. Further details.

Evidence

No targeted extraction of this species is known. Were it to be extracted, it is expected that tissue would be left behind and would regrow. Growth rates of about 5% per week are recorded for the similar Halichondria panicea (Barthel, 1988).

Not relevant Not relevant Not relevant Moderate
Extraction of other species [Show more]

Extraction of other species

Benchmark. A species that is a required host or prey for the species under consideration (and assuming that no alternative host exists) or a keystone species in a biotope is removed. Any effects of the extraction process on the habitat itself are addressed under other factors, e.g. displacement, abrasion and physical disturbance, and substratum loss. Further details.

Evidence

The species is not known to be associated with other species that might be extracted.

Not relevant Not relevant Not relevant Not relevant

Additional information

Importance review

Policy/legislation

DesignationSupport

Status

Non-native

ParameterData
NativeNon-native
OriginNorthwestern Pacific
Date Arrived2008

Importance information

None.

Bibliography

  1. Barthel, D. & Wolfrath, B., 1989. Tissue sloughing in the sponge Halichondria panicea: a fouling organism prevents being fouled. Oecologia, 78, 357-360.

  2. Barthel, D., 1988. On the ecophysiology of the sponge Halichondria panicea in Kiel Bight. II. Biomass, production, energy budget and integration in environmental processes. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 43, 87-93.

  3. Biernbaum, C. K., 1981. Seasonal changes in the Amphipod fauna of Microciona prolifera (Ellis and Solander) (Porifera: Demospongia) and associated Sponges in a shallow Salt-Marsh Creek. Estuaries, 4, 85-96.

  4. Bowerbank, J.S., 1874. A monograph of the British Spongiadae, vol. lll. London: Hardwicke.

  5. Cole, S., Codling, I.D., Parr, W. & Zabel, T., 1999. Guidelines for managing water quality impacts within UK European Marine sites. Natura 2000 report prepared for the UK Marine SACs Project. 441 pp., Swindon: Water Research Council on behalf of EN, SNH, CCW, JNCC, SAMS and EHS. [UK Marine SACs Project.]. Available from: http://ukmpa.marinebiodiversity.org/uk_sacs/pdfs/water_quality.pdf

  6. Franham, W. F., Blunden, G., Gordon, S.M. 1985. Occurrence and pigment analysis of the sponge endobiont Microspora ficulinae (Chlorophyceae). Botanica Marina, 28, 79-81.

  7. Hayward, P., Nelson-Smith, T. & Shields, C. 1996. Collins pocket guide. Sea shore of Britain and northern Europe. London: HarperCollins.

  8. Howson, C.M. & Picton, B.E., 1997. The species directory of the marine fauna and flora of the British Isles and surrounding seas. Belfast: Ulster Museum. [Ulster Museum publication, no. 276.]

  9. Moss, D., & Ackers, G. (eds.), 1982. The UCS Sponge Guide. Produced by R. Earll. Ross-on-Wye: The Underwater Conservation Society.

  10. Smith, J.E. (ed.), 1968. 'Torrey Canyon'. Pollution and marine life. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

  11. Van Soest, R.W.M., Picton, B. & Morrow, C., 2000. Sponges of the North East Atlantic. [CD-ROM] Windows version 1.0. Amsterdam: Biodiversity Center of ETI, Multimedia Interactive Software. [World Biodiversity Database CD-ROM Series.]

  12. Vethaak, A.D., Cronie, R.J.A. & van Soest, R.W.M., 1982. Ecology and distribution of two sympatric, closely related sponge species, Halichondria panicea (Pallas, 1766) and H. bowerbanki Burton, 1930 (Porifera, Demospongiae), with remarks on their speciation. Bijdragen tot de Dierkunde, 52, 82-102.

  13. Wapstra, M. & van Soest, R.W.M., 1987. Sexual reproduction, larval morphology and behaviour in demosponges from the southwest of the Netherlands. Berlin: Springer-Verlag.

Datasets

  1. Centre for Environmental Data and Recording, 2018. Ulster Museum Marine Surveys of Northern Ireland Coastal Waters. Occurrence dataset https://www.nmni.com/CEDaR/CEDaR-Centre-for-Environmental-Data-and-Recording.aspx accessed via NBNAtlas.org on 2018-09-25.

  2. Kent Wildlife Trust, 2018. Kent Wildlife Trust Shoresearch Intertidal Survey 2004 onwards. Occurrence dataset: https://www.kentwildlifetrust.org.uk/ accessed via NBNAtlas.org on 2018-10-01.

  3. Manx Biological Recording Partnership, 2018. Isle of Man historical wildlife records 1990 to 1994. Occurrence dataset:https://doi.org/10.15468/aru16v accessed via GBIF.org on 2018-10-01.

  4. Merseyside BioBank., 2018. Merseyside BioBank (unverified). Occurrence dataset: https://doi.org/10.15468/iou2ld accessed via GBIF.org on 2018-10-01.

  5. National Trust, 2017. National Trust Species Records. Occurrence dataset: https://doi.org/10.15468/opc6g1 accessed via GBIF.org on 2018-10-01.

  6. NBN (National Biodiversity Network) Atlas. Available from: https://www.nbnatlas.org.

  7. OBIS (Ocean Biodiversity Information System),  2024. Global map of species distribution using gridded data. Available from: Ocean Biogeographic Information System. www.iobis.org. Accessed: 2024-04-21

  8. South East Wales Biodiversity Records Centre, 2018. SEWBReC Marine and other Aquatic Invertebrates (South East Wales). Occurrence dataset:https://doi.org/10.15468/zxy1n6 accessed via GBIF.org on 2018-10-02.

Citation

This review can be cited as:

Hiscock, K. & Jones, H. 2007. Halichondria (Halichondria) bowerbanki Bowerbank's halichondria. In Tyler-Walters H. Marine Life Information Network: Biology and Sensitivity Key Information Reviews, [on-line]. Plymouth: Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom. [cited 21-04-2024]. Available from: https://www.marlin.ac.uk/species/detail/1841

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Last Updated: 17/04/2007