Velvet shell (Velutina velutina)
|Researched by||Sonia Rowley||Refereed by||Admin|
|Authority||(O. F. Müller, 1776)|
|Other common names||-||Synonyms||-|
Recorded distribution in Britain and IrelandThis circumboreal species has scattered records from the Shetland Isles, Orkney, east Scotland, Pembrokeshire, the Isle of Man, North Wales, north east Ireland and western Scotland.
HabitatVelutina velutina is a sublittoral species found down to 1000 m deep, on hard grounds only, usually associated with compound ascidians and large hydroids on which it feeds.
- Semi-transparent, thin shell.
- Up to 2 cm x 2 cm but usually smaller.
- Large, almost circular aperture.
- Shell covered with periostracum concealing whorls and sutures.
- Periostracum dark brown.
Additional informationThis is a northern hemisphere species that feeds on solitary ascidians such as Styela and large hydroids (e.g. species of Tubularia). Breeding occurs in the spring. The larva of the species has a flat discoidal, soft and gelatinous shell that lacks marginal keels, and becomes bloated in latter stages of development.
- none -
Graham, A., 1988. Molluscs: prosobranchs and pyramellid gastropods (2nd ed.). Leiden: E.J. Brill/Dr W. Backhuys. [Synopses of the British Fauna No. 2]
Hayward, P., Nelson-Smith, T. & Shields, C. 1996. Collins pocket guide. Sea shore of Britain and northern Europe. London: HarperCollins.
Hayward, P.J. & Ryland, J.S. (ed.), 1995. The marine fauna of the British Isles and north-west Europe. Volume 2. Molluscs to Chordates. Oxford Science Publications. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
Howson, C.M. & Picton, B.E., 1997. The species directory of the marine fauna and flora of the British Isles and surrounding seas. Belfast: Ulster Museum. [Ulster Museum publication, no. 276.]
JNCC (Joint Nature Conservation Committee), 1999. Marine Environment Resource Mapping And Information Database (MERMAID): Marine Nature Conservation Review Survey Database. [on-line] http://www.jncc.gov.uk/mermaid
Centre for Environmental Data and Recording, 2018. Ulster Museum Marine Surveys of Northern Ireland Coastal Waters. Occurrence dataset https://www.nmni.com/CEDaR/CEDaR-Centre-for-Environmental-Data-and-Recording.aspx accessed via NBNAtlas.org on 2018-09-25.
Cofnod – North Wales Environmental Information Service, 2018. Miscellaneous records held on the Cofnod database. Occurrence dataset: https://doi.org/10.15468/hcgqsi accessed via GBIF.org on 2018-09-25.
Conchological Society of Great Britain & Ireland, 2018. Mollusc (marine) data for Great Britain and Ireland - restricted access. Occurrence dataset: https://doi.org/10.15468/4bsawx accessed via GBIF.org on 2018-09-25.
Conchological Society of Great Britain & Ireland, 2018. Mollusc (marine) records for Great Britain and Ireland. Occurrence dataset: https://doi.org/10.15468/aurwcz accessed via GBIF.org on 2018-09-25.
Kent Wildlife Trust, 2018. Kent Wildlife Trust Shoresearch Intertidal Survey 2004 onwards. Occurrence dataset: https://www.kentwildlifetrust.org.uk/ accessed via NBNAtlas.org on 2018-10-01.
NBN (National Biodiversity Network) Atlas. Available from: https://www.nbnatlas.org.
OBIS (Ocean Biodiversity Information System), 2023. Global map of species distribution using gridded data. Available from: Ocean Biogeographic Information System. www.iobis.org. Accessed: 2023-09-21
This review can be cited as:
Last Updated: 03/06/2008