|Researched by||Emma Snowden||Refereed by||Admin|
|Other common names||-||Synonyms||-|
A large and conspicuous sponge occurring in two distinct forms. One is the boring form, recognizable as yellow papillae sticking out of limestone (calcareous rock, mollusc shells etc.); the other is a large massive (also known as 'raphyrus'), wall-shaped sponge covered with characteristic flattened papillae.
The massive form has raised, rounded ridges up to 40 cm across. Large oscules with raised rims are found along the tops of the ridges. It often forms a thick plate-like structure standing on its edge with large specimens growing up to 1 m across and 50 cm high. The surface of this stage is evenly covered by tuberculate inhalant papillae. Often bright to deep yellow, becoming darker out of water. Sometimes observed with red colouration (algae) around oscular (exhalent) openings. The whole sponge shows a noticeable decrease in size when removed from the water. The consistency of this sponge is firm and inflexible with a tough outer layer.
Two forms; boring and massive:
The massive form develops when the sponge has outgrown its habitat, or when it has completely filled crevices in calcareous rocks into which it cannot bore. Cliona celata is the only excavating sponge in NW Europe developing the massive form; other species of Cliona only occur in the boring form. The boring form is very common in oyster and mussel beds, where they cause some damage to shell fish farming. Favoured shells are Ostrea edulis, Magallana gigas, Crepidula fornicata and Arctica islandica. Cliona celata may be confused with the similarly coloured Cliona lobata but Cliona lobata has much smaller and more numerous papillae.
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Gibson, R., Hextall, B. & Rogers, A., 2001. Photographic guide to the sea and seashore life of Britain and north-west Europe. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Hayward, P.J. & Ryland, J.S. (ed.) 1995b. Handbook of the marine fauna of North-West Europe. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Howson, C.M. & Picton, B.E., 1997. The species directory of the marine fauna and flora of the British Isles and surrounding seas. Belfast: Ulster Museum. [Ulster Museum publication, no. 276.]
Van Soest, R.W.M., Picton, B. & Morrow, C., 2000. Sponges of the North East Atlantic. [CD-ROM] Windows version 1.0. Amsterdam: Biodiversity Center of ETI, Multimedia Interactive Software. [World Biodiversity Database CD-ROM Series.]
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Last Updated: 12/09/2007