Sea lace or Dead man's rope (Chorda filum)

Distribution data supplied by the Ocean Biodiversity Information System (OBIS). To interrogate UK data visit the NBN Atlas.Map Help

Summary

Description

Chorda filum is a brown seaweed with long cord-like fronds, only 5 mm thick in diameter. The fronds are hollow, slippery, unbranched and grow up to 8 m long. The species attaches to the substratum using a small discoid holdfast. It is an annual species, disappearing in winter.

Recorded distribution in Britain and Ireland

All coasts of Britain and Ireland, but rarer in south east England.

Global distribution

Recorded from Canada (Arctic), Alaska, NW Atlantic from Labrador to New Jersey, Greenland, Iceland, Spitsbergen, Norway, Sweden, Denmark, The Netherlands, Belgium, the Baltic, the Faroes, France, Spain, Portugal, Canary Islands, Greece, China, Japan and south Kurile Islands, NE Pacific and the Bering Strait.

Habitat

Found in rock pools on the low shore and in the sublittoral down to 5 m. It is most commonly found in sheltered bays attached to stones and shells, often with the holdfast buried in sand.

Depth range

Less than 20 m

Identifying features

  • Frond round in section, cord-like and unbranched.
  • Attached by a tiny disc-like holdfast.
  • Slimy texture.
  • Colourless short hairs on frond in summer.

Additional information

Other common names include mermaid's tresses and cat gut.

Listed by

- none -

Biology review

Taxonomy

LevelScientific nameCommon name
PhylumOchrophyta
ClassPhaeophyceae
OrderLaminariales
FamilyChordaceae
GenusChorda
Authority(Linnaeus) Stackhouse, 1797
Recent SynonymsChorda filum (Linnaeus) Stackhouse, 1797

Biology

ParameterData
Typical abundanceModerate density
Male size rangeUp to 8 m
Male size at maturity36 cm
Female size range36 cm
Female size at maturity
Growth formFiliform / filamentous
Growth rate17cm/month
Body flexibility
Mobility
Characteristic feeding methodAutotroph
Diet/food source
Typically feeds on
Sociability
Environmental positionEpifloral
DependencyIndependent.
SupportsNo information
Is the species harmful?No

Biology information

Chorda filum is a summer annual, falling into decay in the autumn and disappearing during winter. Growth rate is maximal during the summer. The adult frond is a hollow tube, the walls of which are spirally constructed. The frond is frequently inflated with gases in the terminal region. Plants usually grow in clumps. The end of the frond decays continuously and is replaced by growth from a sub-terminal meristem. Hairs are sparse or absent on older plants.

Habitat preferences

ParameterData
Physiographic preferencesEnclosed coast or Embayment, Estuary, Isolated saline water (Lagoon), Ria or Voe, Sea loch or Sea lough, Strait or Sound
Biological zone preferencesLower infralittoral, Sublittoral fringe, Upper infralittoral
Substratum / habitat preferencesGravel / shingle, Macroalgae, Mixed, Muddy gravel, Pebbles
Tidal strength preferencesModerately strong 1 to 3 knots (0.5-1.5 m/sec.), Weak < 1 knot (<0.5 m/sec.)
Wave exposure preferencesSheltered, Very sheltered
Salinity preferencesFull (30-40 psu), Low (<18 psu), Reduced (18-30 psu), Variable (18-40 psu)
Depth rangeLess than 20 m
Other preferences

No text entered

Migration PatternNon-migratory or resident

Habitat Information

Chorda filum occurs in sheltered bays, estuaries, lagoons and sea lochs. It is rarely found on the open coast and is completely absent from exposed shores. The plants occur in clumps on a range of unstable, small objects such as pebbles and shells. It may also be found on sand and detritus but it will not remain for long on this substratum (S. Kraan, pers. comm.). They are also epiphytic on Zostera marina and Fucus vesiculosus. During stormy weather, plants may be washed to more sheltered locations where they continue development. Chorda filum has considerable tolerance to reduced salinities and extends into river mouths and the Baltic, where it grows at 3.5 psu. However, plants that grow in fully marine conditions cannot withstand immersion in freshwater for two hours (Russell, 1985).

Life history

Adult characteristics

ParameterData
Reproductive typeAlternation of generations
Reproductive frequency Annual protracted
Fecundity (number of eggs)>1,000,000
Generation time<1 year
Age at maturity<1 year
Season
Life spanInsufficient information

Larval characteristics

ParameterData
Larval/propagule type-
Larval/juvenile development Spores (sexual / asexual)
Duration of larval stageNot relevant
Larval dispersal potential 100 -1000 m
Larval settlement periodNot relevant

Life history information

Chorda filum has a similar life-history to other Laminariales, exhibiting alternation of heteromorphic generations. The species has a macroscopic diploid sporophyte and a microscopic haploid gametophyte. The gametophytes consist of clumps of prostate, branched, filaments approximately 100 micrometres long. Female gametophytes are less branched than male ones and may be distinguished by their larger more densely pigmented cells. The male gametophytes are smaller, paler in colour and more densely branched than the females. Chorda filum exhibits a protracted reproductive period. Visible sporophytes appear on shores between February and mid-March and develop into secondary sporophytes between April and June. The sporophytes are washed away from October to February, leaving behind zoospores or gametophytes. The size of plants is not related to their state of maturity, although the smallest plants to bear sporangia have been observed to be 36.6 cm long. When the meristem becomes indistinct it is likely that fruiting has begun. During the period of fertility the whole plant except the lowermost 5-10 cm, is covered in unilocular sporangia. Experiments on growing Chorda filum in culture have shown that fruiting appears to be endogenously controlled and occurs irrespective of environmental conditions (South & Burrows, 1967).

Sensitivity reviewHow is sensitivity assessed?

Physical pressures

Use / to open/close text displayed

 IntoleranceRecoverabilitySensitivityEvidence / Confidence
Substratum loss [Show more]

Substratum loss

Benchmark. All of the substratum occupied by the species or biotope under consideration is removed. A single event is assumed for sensitivity assessment. Once the activity or event has stopped (or between regular events) suitable substratum remains or is deposited. Species or community recovery assumes that the substratum within the habitat preferences of the original species or community is present. Further details

Evidence

Chorda filum is permanently attached to the substratum and would be removed with substratum loss. Accordingly, intolerance has been assessed as high. Recruitment rates of the species are not known, however it has a fast growth rate and high fecundity and recovery rates are probably high.
High High Moderate Low
Smothering [Show more]

Smothering

Benchmark. All of the population of a species or an area of a biotope is smothered by sediment to a depth of 5 cm above the substratum for one month. Impermeable materials, such as concrete, oil, or tar, are likely to have a greater effect. Further details.

Evidence

The impact of smothering would depend on the time of year when it occurred. If smothering took place in winter, the microscopic gametophytes of Chorda filum would be buried. Although the gametophytes are more than likely to be tolerant of darkness (see turbidity), the reduction in oxygen often associated with smothering may lead to gametophytes rotting. At the very least, it may delay the microscopic gametophytes from germinating. If smothering occurred between April and November, when the large sporophytes are present, the impact would be lessened because some of the fronds would escape burial. Indeed, plants are often found with their holdfasts buried in sand or mud. Overall, intolerance has been assessed as intermediate to reflect the possibility that some gametophytes may be lost which would lead to a reduced population size the following year. Recruitment rates of the species are not known, however it has a fast growth rate and high fecundity and recovery rates are probably high.
Intermediate High Low Low
Increase in suspended sediment [Show more]

Increase in suspended sediment

Benchmark. An arbitrary short-term, acute change in background suspended sediment concentration e.g., a change of 100 mg/l for one month. The resultant light attenuation effects are addressed under turbidity, and the effects of rapid settling out of suspended sediment are addressed under smothering. Further details

Evidence

The presence of silt on fronds would reduce light available for photosynthesis and lower growth rates. However, the species naturally occurs in places of high siltation, such as estuaries, so the species is likely to be tolerant of this factor.
Tolerant Not relevant Not sensitive Moderate
Decrease in suspended sediment [Show more]

Decrease in suspended sediment

Benchmark. An arbitrary short-term, acute change in background suspended sediment concentration e.g., a change of 100 mg/l for one month. The resultant light attenuation effects are addressed under turbidity, and the effects of rapid settling out of suspended sediment are addressed under smothering. Further details

Evidence

Chorda filum is likely to be tolerant of a reduction in suspended sediment and may even benefit from an decrease in light attenuation (see turbidity).
Tolerant Not relevant Not sensitive Moderate
Desiccation [Show more]

Desiccation

  1. A normally subtidal, demersal or pelagic species including intertidal migratory or under-boulder species is continuously exposed to air and sunshine for one hour.
  2. A normally intertidal species or community is exposed to a change in desiccation equivalent to a change in position of one vertical biological zone on the shore, e.g., from upper eulittoral to the mid eulittoral or from sublittoral fringe to lower eulittoral for a period of one year. Further details.

Evidence

Chorda filum is likely to be highly intolerant of desiccation since it normally occurs in the shallow sublittoral or in rock pools. Recruitment rates of the species are not known, however it has a fast growth rate and high fecundity and recovery rates are probably high.
High High Moderate High
Increase in emergence regime [Show more]

Increase in emergence regime

Benchmark. A one hour change in the time covered or not covered by the sea for a period of one year. Further details

Evidence

Chorda filum would probably be highly intolerant of an increase emergence because it cannot withstand desiccation. Recruitment rates of the species are not known, however it has a fast growth rate and high fecundity and recovery rates are probably high.
High High Moderate Moderate
Decrease in emergence regime [Show more]

Decrease in emergence regime

Benchmark. A one hour change in the time covered or not covered by the sea for a period of one year. Further details

Evidence

At the level of the benchmark Chorda filum is likely to be tolerant* of a decrease in emergence as the extent of the population may increase providing suitable substratum was available.
Tolerant* Not relevant Not sensitive* Low
Increase in water flow rate [Show more]

Increase in water flow rate

A change of two categories in water flow rate (view glossary) for 1 year, for example, from moderately strong (1-3 knots) to very weak (negligible). Further details

Evidence

An increase in water flow may cause the substratum, with the plants attached, to be moved. If the substratum is moved to suitable conditions for growth of Chorda filum the plants will survive. However, the plants may be carried away to areas where the conditions are unsuitable for the alga's growth, for example, into areas deeper than the compensation zone for photosynthesis. In this case, the plants would die. An intolerance of intermediate has been suggested to reflect the likelihood that some plants will be lost to unsuitable areas. Recruitment rates of the species are not known, however it has a fast growth rate and high fecundity and recovery rates are probably high.
Intermediate High Low Moderate
Decrease in water flow rate [Show more]

Decrease in water flow rate

A change of two categories in water flow rate (view glossary) for 1 year, for example, from moderately strong (1-3 knots) to very weak (negligible). Further details

Evidence

A decrease in water flow at the benchmark level could result in the plants being in areas with negligible water flow. In this case, the plants would probably die (S. Kraan, pers. comm.) and therefore, intolerance has been assessed as high. Recruitment rates of the species are not known, however it has a fast growth rate and high fecundity and recovery rates are probably high.
High High Moderate High
Increase in temperature [Show more]

Increase in temperature

  1. A short-term, acute change in temperature; e.g., a 5°C change in the temperature range for three consecutive days. This definition includes ‘short-term’ thermal discharges.
  2. A long-term, chronic change in temperature; e.g. a 2°C change in the temperature range for a year. This definition includes ‘long term’ thermal discharges.

For intertidal species or communities, the range of temperatures includes the air temperature regime for that species or community. Further details

Evidence

The species lives in rock pools, where it is exposed to wide fluctuations in temperature. It occurs from Spitsbergen to northern Portugal and does not appear to form ecotypes that vary in thermal response over its distribution range (Breeman, 1988). It is well within its temperature range in the UK and would probably not be affected by a change in 5 °C.
Low High Low Low
Decrease in temperature [Show more]

Decrease in temperature

  1. A short-term, acute change in temperature; e.g., a 5°C change in the temperature range for three consecutive days. This definition includes ‘short-term’ thermal discharges.
  2. A long-term, chronic change in temperature; e.g. a 2°C change in the temperature range for a year. This definition includes ‘long term’ thermal discharges.

For intertidal species or communities, the range of temperatures includes the air temperature regime for that species or community. Further details

Evidence

The species lives in rock pools, where it is exposed to wide fluctuations in temperature. It occurs from Spitsbergen to northern Portugal and does not appear to form ecotypes that vary in thermal response over its distribution range (Breeman, 1988). It is well within its temperature range in the UK and would probably not be affected by a change in 5 °C.
Low High Low Low
Increase in turbidity [Show more]

Increase in turbidity

  1. A short-term, acute change; e.g., two categories of the water clarity scale (see glossary) for one month, such as from medium to extreme turbidity.
  2. A long-term, chronic change; e.g., one category of the water clarity scale (see glossary) for one year, such as from low to medium turbidity. Further details

Evidence

Turbidity would reduce light available for photosynthesis and lower growth rates. It may also reduce the maximum depth at which Chorda filum can grow. However, at the benchmark level it is unlikely that the population would be adversely affected and, therefore, low intolerance has been suggested. On return to normal turbidity levels the growth rate would be quickly restored.
Low Immediate Not sensitive Moderate
Decrease in turbidity [Show more]

Decrease in turbidity

  1. A short-term, acute change; e.g., two categories of the water clarity scale (see glossary) for one month, such as from medium to extreme turbidity.
  2. A long-term, chronic change; e.g., one category of the water clarity scale (see glossary) for one year, such as from low to medium turbidity. Further details

Evidence

A decrease in turbidity may lead to enhanced growth rate as a result of decreased light attenuation. The lower extent of the population may also be extended as the depth of compensation point for photosynthesis may also become deeper. Tolerant* has been suggested.
Tolerant* Not relevant Not sensitive* Not relevant
Increase in wave exposure [Show more]

Increase in wave exposure

A change of two ranks on the wave exposure scale (view glossary) e.g., from Exposed to Extremely exposed for a period of one year. Further details

Evidence

Chorda filum is most common at sheltered sites. An increase in wave exposure above this could tear plants off the substratum or move the substratum with the plants attached. If the substratum was moved to conditions suitable for growth of the algae the species could continue growing. However, the substratum could be removed to deeper water where conditions are unsuitable for the alga's growth. An increase in wave exposure could also lead to a shift in the type of sediment, removing suitable substrata for Chorda filum. Recruitment rates of the species are not known, however it has a fast growth rate and high fecundity and recovery rates are probably high.
High High Moderate Moderate
Decrease in wave exposure [Show more]

Decrease in wave exposure

A change of two ranks on the wave exposure scale (view glossary) e.g., from Exposed to Extremely exposed for a period of one year. Further details

Evidence

Chorda filum can be found in sheltered and very sheltered habitats and, therefore, a decrease in wave exposure is not thought to be relevant.
Not relevant Not relevant Not relevant Moderate
Noise [Show more]

Noise

  1. Underwater noise levels e.g., the regular passing of a 30-metre trawler at 100 metres or a working cutter-suction transfer dredge at 100 metres for one month during important feeding or breeding periods.
  2. Atmospheric noise levels e.g., the regular passing of a Boeing 737 passenger jet 300 metres overhead for one month during important feeding or breeding periods. Further details

Evidence

Seaweeds have no known mechanism for perception of noise
Tolerant Not relevant Not sensitive High
Visual presence [Show more]

Visual presence

Benchmark. The continuous presence for one month of moving objects not naturally found in the marine environment (e.g., boats, machinery, and humans) within the visual envelope of the species or community under consideration. Further details

Evidence

Seaweeds have no known mechanism for visual perception.
Tolerant Not relevant Not sensitive High
Abrasion & physical disturbance [Show more]

Abrasion & physical disturbance

Benchmark. Force equivalent to a standard scallop dredge landing on or being dragged across the organism. A single event is assumed for assessment. This factor includes mechanical interference, crushing, physical blows against, or rubbing and erosion of the organism or habitat of interest. Where trampling is relevant, the evidence and trampling intensity will be reported in the rationale. Further details.

Evidence

Physical disturbance equivalent to a passing scallop dredge (see benchmark) is likely to remove a proportion of the population. Therefore, an intolerance or intermediate has been recorded. Recruitment rates of the species are not known, however it has a fast growth rate and high fecundity and recovery rates are probably high.
Intermediate High Low Low
Displacement [Show more]

Displacement

Benchmark. Removal of the organism from the substratum and displacement from its original position onto a suitable substratum. A single event is assumed for assessment. Further details

Evidence

Chorda filum can survive being displaced, if the substratum moves with the plants attached. Stormy weather can transport plants attached to sediment to more sheltered locations where they continue growing (South & Burrows, 1967). However, Chorda filum cannot tolerate displacement if it is removed from the substratum (see substratum loss). Recruitment rates of the species are not known, however it has a fast growth rate and high fecundity and recovery rates are probably high.
High High Moderate Moderate

Chemical pressures

Use [show more] / [show less] to open/close text displayed

 IntoleranceRecoverabilitySensitivityEvidence / Confidence
Synthetic compound contamination [Show more]

Synthetic compound contamination

Sensitivity is assessed against the available evidence for the effects of contaminants on the species (or closely related species at low confidence) or community of interest. For example:

  • evidence of mass mortality of a population of the species or community of interest (either short or long term) in response to a contaminant will be ranked as high sensitivity;
  • evidence of reduced abundance, or extent of a population of the species or community of interest (either short or long term) in response to a contaminant will be ranked as intermediate sensitivity;
  • evidence of sub-lethal effects or reduced reproductive potential of a population of the species or community of interest will be assessed as low sensitivity.

The evidence used is stated in the rationale. Where the assessment can be based on a known activity then this is stated. The tolerance to contaminants of species of interest will be included in the rationale when available; together with relevant supporting material. Further details.

Evidence

Other seaweeds in the same order e.g. Laminaria digitata have been shown to be of intermediate intolerance to synthetic chemical contamination. However, insufficient information was available to assess the sensitivity of Chorda filum.
No information Not relevant No information Not relevant
Heavy metal contamination [Show more]

Heavy metal contamination

Evidence

Other seaweeds in the same order e.g. Saccharina latissima have been shown to be of intermediate intolerance to synthetic chemical contamination. However, insufficient information was available to assess the sensitivity of Chorda filum.
No information Not relevant No information Not relevant
Hydrocarbon contamination [Show more]

Hydrocarbon contamination

Evidence

Saccharina latissima, Laminaria digitata and Laminaria hyperborea have all been assessed as being of low intolerance to hydrocarbon contamination. However, insufficient information was available to assess sensitivity.
No information Not relevant No information Not relevant
Radionuclide contamination [Show more]

Radionuclide contamination

Evidence

Insufficient
information.
No information Not relevant No information Not relevant
Changes in nutrient levels [Show more]

Changes in nutrient levels

Evidence

Nutrients are essential for the growth of the alga. A decrease in nutrient levels would reduce growth rates. A slight increase in the level of nutrients may enhance growth, but high levels of nutrients may cause overgrowth of the alga by ephemeral green seaweed (Fletcher, 1996). Recruitment rates of the species are not known, however it has a fast growth rate and high fecundity and recovery rates are probably high.
Intermediate High Low Low
Increase in salinity [Show more]

Increase in salinity

  1. A short-term, acute change; e.g., a change of two categories from the MNCR salinity scale for one week (view glossary) such as from full to reduced.
  2. A long-term, chronic change; e.g., a change of one category from the MNCR salinity scale for one year (view glossary) such as from reduced to low. Further details.

Evidence

Chorda filum can be found in full salinity environments and therefore a further increase in salinity is unlikely. Therefore, not relevant has been recorded.
Not relevant Not relevant Not relevant Moderate
Decrease in salinity [Show more]

Decrease in salinity

  1. A short-term, acute change; e.g., a change of two categories from the MNCR salinity scale for one week (view glossary) such as from full to reduced.
  2. A long-term, chronic change; e.g., a change of one category from the MNCR salinity scale for one year (view glossary) such as from reduced to low. Further details.

Evidence

The species is found in low salinity environments such as estuaries and the Baltic and has been successfully cultured at salinities as low as 5 psu (Norton & South, 1969). It is also found in lagoonal habitats with low salinity (for example, see biotope SIR.FChoG). However, plants from fully saline conditions decay on immersion in freshwater (Russell, 1985). Overall, intolerance has been assessed as low. Recruitment rates of the species are not known, however it has a fast growth rate and high fecundity and recovery rates are probably high.
Low High Low
Changes in oxygenation [Show more]

Changes in oxygenation

Benchmark.  Exposure to a dissolved oxygen concentration of 2 mg/l for one week. Further details.

Evidence

Insufficient
information
No information Not relevant No information Not relevant

Biological pressures

Use [show more] / [show less] to open/close text displayed

 IntoleranceRecoverabilitySensitivityEvidence / Confidence
Introduction of microbial pathogens/parasites [Show more]

Introduction of microbial pathogens/parasites

Benchmark. Sensitivity can only be assessed relative to a known, named disease, likely to cause partial loss of a species population or community. Further details.

Evidence

Insufficient
information
No information Not relevant No information Not relevant
Introduction of non-native species [Show more]

Introduction of non-native species

Sensitivity assessed against the likely effect of the introduction of alien or non-native species in Britain or Ireland. Further details.

Evidence

The Japweed Sargassum muticum may have displaced Chorda filum from unstable habitats (Hill et al., 1998).
Intermediate High Low High
Extraction of this species [Show more]

Extraction of this species

Benchmark. Extraction removes 50% of the species or community from the area under consideration. Sensitivity will be assessed as 'intermediate'. The habitat remains intact or recovers rapidly. Any effects of the extraction process on the habitat itself are addressed under other factors, e.g. displacement, abrasion and physical disturbance, and substratum loss. Further details.

Evidence

Little evidence has been found on the impact of extraction of Chorda filum. However, if removed recovery should be rapid. The species is an annual and recruitment rates are likely to be high so recovery is expected to take place within a year or two.
Intermediate High Low Low
Extraction of other species [Show more]

Extraction of other species

Benchmark. A species that is a required host or prey for the species under consideration (and assuming that no alternative host exists) or a keystone species in a biotope is removed. Any effects of the extraction process on the habitat itself are addressed under other factors, e.g. displacement, abrasion and physical disturbance, and substratum loss. Further details.

Evidence

Insufficient
information
No information Not relevant No information Not relevant

Additional information

Importance review

Policy/legislation

- no data -

Status

Non-native

ParameterData
Native-
Origin-
Date Arrived-

Importance information

Chorda filum is used fresh as a foodstuff but only in Japan.The sporophytes may support a rich epiflora and epifauna. The most common epiflora include Acrochaete repens, Bolbocoleon piliferum and Ectocarpus siliculosus. Common epifauna include Lacuna vincta, Natica spp. and Spirorbis spirorbis.The epiphytes may cause considerable damage to the sporophytes.

Bibliography

  1. Breeman, A.M., 1988. Relative importance of temperature and other factors in determining geographic boundaries of seaweeds: experimental and phenological evidence. Helgoländer Meeresuntersuchungen, 42, 199-241.

  2. Fletcher, R.L., 1996. The occurrence of 'green tides' - a review. In Marine Benthic Vegetation. Recent changes and the Effects of Eutrophication (ed. W. Schramm & P.H. Nienhuis). Berlin Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag. [Ecological Studies, vol. 123].

  3. Guiry, M.D. & Blunden, G., 1991. Seaweed Resources in Europe: Uses and Potential. Chicester: John Wiley & Sons.

  4. Guiry, M.D. & Nic Dhonncha, E., 2002. AlgaeBase. World Wide Web electronic publication http://www.algaebase.org,

  5. Hardy, F.G. & Guiry, M.D., 2003. A check-list and atlas of the seaweeds of Britain and Ireland. London: British Phycological Society

  6. Norton, T.A. & South, G.R., 1969. Influence of reduced salinity on the distribution of two laminarian algae. Oikos, 20, 320-326

  7. Russell, G., 1985. Some anatomical and physiological differences in Chorda filum from coastal waters of Finland and Great Britain. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 65, 343-349.

  8. South, G.H. & Burrows, E.M., 1967. Studies on marine algae of the British Isles. 5. Chorda filum (l.) Stckh. British Phycological Bulletin, 3 , 379-402.

Datasets

  1. Centre for Environmental Data and Recording, 2018. Ulster Museum Marine Surveys of Northern Ireland Coastal Waters. Occurrence dataset https://www.nmni.com/CEDaR/CEDaR-Centre-for-Environmental-Data-and-Recording.aspx accessed via NBNAtlas.org on 2018-09-25.

  2. Cofnod – North Wales Environmental Information Service, 2018. Miscellaneous records held on the Cofnod database. Occurrence dataset: https://doi.org/10.15468/hcgqsi accessed via GBIF.org on 2018-09-25.

  3. Environmental Records Information Centre North East, 2018. ERIC NE Combined dataset to 2017. Occurrence dataset: http://www.ericnortheast.org.ukl accessed via NBNAtlas.org on 2018-09-38

  4. Fenwick, 2018. Aphotomarine. Occurrence dataset http://www.aphotomarine.com/index.html Accessed via NBNAtlas.org on 2018-10-01

  5. Fife Nature Records Centre, 2018. St Andrews BioBlitz 2014. Occurrence dataset: https://doi.org/10.15468/erweal accessed via GBIF.org on 2018-09-27.

  6. Fife Nature Records Centre, 2018. St Andrews BioBlitz 2015. Occurrence dataset: https://doi.org/10.15468/xtrbvy accessed via GBIF.org on 2018-09-27.

  7. Fife Nature Records Centre, 2018. St Andrews BioBlitz 2016. Occurrence dataset: https://doi.org/10.15468/146yiz accessed via GBIF.org on 2018-09-27.

  8. Kent Wildlife Trust, 2018. Kent Wildlife Trust Shoresearch Intertidal Survey 2004 onwards. Occurrence dataset: https://www.kentwildlifetrust.org.uk/ accessed via NBNAtlas.org on 2018-10-01.

  9. Manx Biological Recording Partnership, 2017. Isle of Man wildlife records from 01/01/2000 to 13/02/2017. Occurrence dataset: https://doi.org/10.15468/mopwow accessed via GBIF.org on 2018-10-01.

  10. Manx Biological Recording Partnership, 2018. Isle of Man historical wildlife records 1995 to 1999. Occurrence dataset: https://doi.org/10.15468/lo2tge accessed via GBIF.org on 2018-10-01.

  11. Merseyside BioBank., 2018. Merseyside BioBank (unverified). Occurrence dataset: https://doi.org/10.15468/iou2ld accessed via GBIF.org on 2018-10-01.

  12. National Trust, 2017. National Trust Species Records. Occurrence dataset: https://doi.org/10.15468/opc6g1 accessed via GBIF.org on 2018-10-01.

  13. NBN (National Biodiversity Network) Atlas. Available from: https://www.nbnatlas.org.

  14. OBIS (Ocean Biodiversity Information System),  2024. Global map of species distribution using gridded data. Available from: Ocean Biogeographic Information System. www.iobis.org. Accessed: 2024-02-21

  15. Outer Hebrides Biological Recording, 2018. Non-vascular Plants, Outer Hebrides. Occurrence dataset: https://doi.org/10.15468/goidos accessed via GBIF.org on 2018-10-01.

  16. Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh, 2018. Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh Herbarium (E). Occurrence dataset: https://doi.org/10.15468/ypoair accessed via GBIF.org on 2018-10-02.

  17. South East Wales Biodiversity Records Centre, 2018. SEWBReC Algae and allied species (South East Wales). Occurrence dataset: https://doi.org/10.15468/55albd accessed via GBIF.org on 2018-10-02.

Citation

This review can be cited as:

White, N. 2006. Chorda filum Sea lace or Dead man's rope. In Tyler-Walters H. Marine Life Information Network: Biology and Sensitivity Key Information Reviews, [on-line]. Plymouth: Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom. [cited 21-02-2024]. Available from: https://www.marlin.ac.uk/species/detail/1366

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Last Updated: 07/11/2006