|Researched by||Marisa Sabatini & Jacqueline Hill||Refereed by||Dr Sue Marrs|
|Other common names||-||Synonyms||-|
Nephrops norvegicus is a small lobster, pale orange in colour. It grows to a maximum total length of 25 cm (including the tail and clawed legs), although individuals are normally between 18-20 cm. The head and thorax have a non-segmented cover (the carapace) while the long abdomen is clearly segmented with a broad fan-like tail. The first 3 pairs of legs bear claws. The first pair of legs are very elongated with longitudinal, spiny ridges. There are 2 pairs of antennae, the second pair much longer and thinner than the first. The eyes are large, black, and moveable.
Also known as the Dublin Bay prawn, scampi and langoustine.
- none -
|Phylum||Arthropoda||Arthropods, joint-legged animals, e.g. insects, crustaceans & spiders|
|Class||Malacostraca||Crabs, lobsters, sand hoppers and sea slaters|
|Order||Decapoda||Crabs, shrimps, prawns, crayfish and lobsters|
|Typical abundance||Low density|
|Male size range||25cm|
|Male size at maturity||Carapace length 26mm|
|Female size range||Carapace length 23mm|
|Female size at maturity|
|Growth rate||See additional information|
|Body flexibility||Low (10-45 degrees)|
|Characteristic feeding method||Predator, Scavenger|
|Typically feeds on||Nephrops is an opportunistic predator feeding on crustaceans, molluscs and to a lesser extent polychaetes and echinoderms.|
|Dependency||No text entered.|
|Supports||See additional information|
for associated species.
|Is the species harmful?||No|
There are large fisheries for the edible Nephrops norvegicus.
Early fisheries investigations revealed marked geographical variability in the abundance and size of individual Nephrops in trawls (Cole, 1965; Thomas, 1965a). In Loch Torridon, Chapman & Rice (1971) reported densities of Nephrops of 1 ind. /7.8 m² in 1968, whereas in 1969 it was 1 ind. /5.5 m². The density of two populations of Nephrops norvegicus was reported for two sites on the west coast of Scotland in the Clyde and the Sound of Jura (Thomas, 1965a). In the Sound of Jura the population of Nephrops norvegicus consisted mainly of small Nephrops below 30 mm carapace length (CL) at an estimated density of approximately 1 ind. /m². The density of Nephrops in the Clyde was much lower (approximately 1 ind. /4m²). Reasons for such variability in density, size and growth rates, are listed below.
Although Nephrops norvegicus is capable of swimming, it is a crawler more than it is a swimmer.
Although Nephrops norvegicus are essentially solitary animals, multiple occupancy can occur in the burrows (Marrs, pers. comm.).
Like other crustaceans, Nephrops norvegicus must moult, shedding their hard exoskeleton, to grow. Nephrops contain no annually marked structures, such as the otoliths found in fish, so the estimation of growth rates, age and maximum age has proved to be particularly difficult in this species.
Growth (and fecundity) in Nephrops norvegicus are known to vary geographically and have been shown to be negatively correlated with burrow density (Tuck et al., 1997). Thus, growth rate appears to be density-dependent, and is also thought to be related to food availability. For example, Tuck et al. (1997) found growth was correlated with infaunal biomass. This suggests that nutritional stress occurs in populations with slower growing individuals. Growth of Nephrops may also be influenced at high densities through social behaviour changes (Cobb et al., 1982). Parslow-Williams et al. (2001) found evidence that nutritional limitation was occurring in Nephrops norvegicus from a site in the Clyde Sea with a high population density, compared to another site with a low density of individuals.
Information on the growth rate of lobsters is very limited (Thomas,1965c). Despite being one of the most studied decapods, the area of age and growth estimation is still one for which there is no standard methodology (Castro, 1995). A number of studies have estimated the growth rate of Nephrops norvegicus:
Thus mature females about 23 mm CL and mature male Nephrops about 26 mm CL are around 2-3 years old in Irish waters (Marine Institute, 2001). The minimum landing size for Nephrops in Irish waters is >70 mm (total size) and >20 mm CL therefore individuals would range from 1.5 to 3 years old (Marine Institute, 2003).
Nephrops norvegicus grows to a maximum total length of 25 cm (including the tail, carapace and clawed legs), although is normally between 18-20 cm (Fish & Fish, 1996). The generally recognized standard measurement for Nephrops norvegicus is carapace length (CL). The maximum recorded CL of Nephrops was 80 mm (Marine Institute, 2001). However, in recent years Nephrops with carapaces larger than 60 mm are rare (Marine Institute, 2001).
Nephrops norvegicus construct extensive shallow and branching burrows in soft sediments such as fine or silty mud at depths of 20-800 m. Burrows may be up to 10 cm in diameter, over a metre long and penetrate the sediment to a depth of 20-30 cm (Rice & Chapman, 1981). Nephrops norvegicus usually remain within their burrows by day and emerge at sunset to forage during the night but in deeper water this activity is reversed and individuals are more active by day (Chapman & Rice, 1971). In laboratory conditions, large males are less inclined to make burrows than females and small males, which may account for the higher proportion of large males that are caught in small catches (Andersen, 1962; cited in Farmer, 1974a, b).
Representatives of most invertebrate phyla have been found in the foregut of Nephrops norvegicus. Most studies show that Nephrops norvegicus feeds primarily on crustaceans but also molluscs and to a lesser extent polychaetes and echinoderms (Parslow-Williams et al., 2002). Although a crustacean diet has a lower energy content that some of the other faunal groups, they do provide a source of essential minerals such as calcium (Ennis, 1973). Any differences in diet appear to be due more to changes in prey abundance than to prey preference (Parslow-Williams et al., 2002) indicating that the species is an opportunistic predator. The size range of prey eaten by Nephrops norvegicus was investigated by Thomas & Davidson (1962) who found that the minimum food particle size ingested was 1 mm, and the maximum for hard particles such as bits of shells was 5 mm. They also found that larger soft bodied organisms like polychaetes could also be ingested if taken in lengthways.
Loo et al. (1993) suggested that Nephrops could filter feed, allowing Nephrops to extend the size range of its food items. Farmer (1974d) reported that the expodites of the various mouth parts of Nephrops in most cases bore plumose setae, which when waved continuously produced water currents. Farmer (1974d) suggested that this behaviour was for cleaning suspended food particles away from the mouth. During another study Nephrops norvegicus were kept in small tanks containing fluorescently-marked food particles comprised of the brine shrimp Artemia salina. These food particles were found in the gills, stomach and intestine of Nephrops. Loo et al. (1993) suggested that this provided effective evidence of filter-feeding. However, this feeding may be more 'micro-raptorial' rather than strictly filter-feeding (Parslow-Williams et al., 2002). During periods of food scarcity, females spend a prolonged period in their burrows and suspension feeding is thought to occur (Loo et al., 1993).
Diel variation in feeding rates have been observed indirectly in Nephrops norvegicus. Catch rates of lobsters has always varied depending on the time of day with peak catches at dawn and dusk. Only those lobsters that have emerged from their burrows are caught in the trawls and, since it is assumed that they emerge mostly to forage (Chapman, 1980), catch patterns indicate diel patterns of feeding behaviour. The stomach contents of animals sampled by Parslow-Williams et al., (2002) indicated a feeding peak around dawn but not around dusk, although animals were out of their burrows. Sampling is complicated by the fact that satiated animals will return to their burrows and be unavailable for capture.
Supports which species
The rare British Fries' goby Lesueurigobius friesii shares the burrows of Nephrops norvegicus. The minute Cycliophoran Symbion pandora is a unique sessile animal less than 1 mm long that was found in the mouth parts of Nephrops collected in Denmark and the first of its kind to be described. Symbion pandora has a basal attachment disc and an anterior ciliated food gathering organ (Conway Morris, 1995).
Barnes & Bagenal (1951) recorded large numbers of Balanus crenatus living on Nephrops norvegicus in the Clyde area. The following species have been observed on specimens of Nephrops norvegicus from the Irish Sea: Triticella koreni, Balanus crenatus, Electra pilosa, Eudendrium capillare, Sabella pavonina, Serpula vermicularis and a forminiferan probably Cyclogyra sp. (Farmer, 1972; cited in Farmer, 1975). The polychaete Histriobdella homari has been observed on the pleopods of two Nephrops norvegicus from the Irish Sea and Clyde Sea (Briggs et al., 1997).
Nephrops norvegicus is preyed upon by numerous white fish some of which are listed below.
|Physiographic preferences||Offshore seabed|
|Biological zone preferences||Lower circalittoral, Lower infralittoral, Upper circalittoral|
|Substratum / habitat preferences||Mud, Muddy sand, Sandy mud|
|Tidal strength preferences||Very Weak (negligible), Weak < 1 knot (<0.5 m/sec.)|
|Wave exposure preferences||Extremely sheltered, Sheltered, Ultra sheltered, Very sheltered|
|Salinity preferences||Full (30-40 psu)|
|Other preferences||No text entered|
|Migration Pattern||Non-migratory / resident|
|Reproductive type||Gonochoristic (dioecious)|
|Reproductive frequency||Annual episodic|
|Fecundity (number of eggs)||See additional information|
|Generation time||See additional information|
|Age at maturity||See additional information|
|Season||Summer - Autumn|
|Life span||5-10 years|
|Duration of larval stage||-|
|Larval dispersal potential||See additional information|
|Larval settlement period||Insufficient information|
This MarLIN sensitivity assessment has been superseded by the MarESA approach to sensitivity assessment. MarLIN assessments used an approach that has now been modified to reflect the most recent conservation imperatives and terminology and are due to be updated by 2016/17.
|Although Nephrops norvegicus is mobile, if disturbed it is likely to seek refuge within a burrow within the substratum and so are also likely to be removed. Therefore intolerance has been assessed as high. This species does not reach sexual maturity for several years and recovery has been assessed to be moderate.|
|Tolerant||Not relevant||Not sensitive||High|
|Nephrops norvegicus lives in burrows in sandy mud habitats. Its burrows can be large, consisting of tunnels over a metre long by 10 cm in diameter and penetrate 20-30 cm into the sediment (Rice & Chapman, 1981). Burrows vary in complexity from a simple tunnel to complex systems as juveniles construct burrows off those of adults (Tuck et al., 1994). Therefore, it is unlikely to be adversely affected by smothering by 5 cm of sediment (see benchmark). Nephrops has been assessed as tolerant at the benchmark level. However, the species may be sensitive to smothering by other materials.|
|Tolerant||Not relevant||Not sensitive||Low|
|Nephrops norvegicus is probably tolerant of changes in suspended sediment. Nephrops are not dependent on increased suspended sediment for food availability as Nephrops is a carnivore and feeds by predation and scavenging. The species is also able to move to more suitable conditions if necessary. Therefore Nephrops has been assessed as tolerant to this factor.|
|Tolerant||Not relevant||Not sensitive||Low|
|This species is probably tolerant of decreases in suspended sediment as it feeds by predation and scavenging and is not reliant on food uptake through the sediments however, its prey may be affected. Therefore an assessment of tolerant is given.|
|Not relevant||Not relevant||Not relevant||High|
|Nephrops norvegicus is a deep water species so a change in the level of desiccation is not relevant.|
|Not relevant||Not relevant||Not relevant||High|
|Nephrops norvegicus is a deep water species so a change in the amount of emergence is not relevant.|
|Not relevant||Not relevant||Not relevant||High|
|Nephrops norvegicus is a sub-tidal species so a change in the amount of emergence is not relevant.|
|Following an increase in water flow rate only the surface sediments are likely to be winnowed away in a unidirectional flow. However, the settlement of the planktonic larvae of Nephrops norvegicus may be inhibited owing to re-suspension along with particulate matter. Consequently the viability of the population may be reduced. On return to prior conditions, specimens of the characterizing species will have remained and are likely to repopulate via successful larval settlement. Therefore intolerance has been assessed as intermediate with a high recoverability.|
|Tolerant||Not relevant||Not sensitive||Low|
|Nephrops norvegicus is not likely to be directly intolerant of a decrease in water flow rate. Sediments may become muddier owing to increased settlement of particulate matter. The fine muds inhabited by Nephrops are characteristic of low energy, sheltered environments such as deep sea lochs. Therefore, tolerant has been recorded.|
|Low||Very high||Very Low||Very low|
|Nephrops norvegicus is found in the Mediterranean and is also abundant in the Adriatic showing that it can adapt to increases in temperatures. Bottom temperatures from Nephrops inhabited areas range from 7-13°C in the Irish Sea and 10-15°C in the Adriatic (Farmer, 1972a and Karlovac, 1953; cited in Farmer, 1975). However, the maximum and minimum temperatures limiting Nephrops norvegicus in its natural environment are not known (Farmer, 1975). Temperature may cause considerable variation in the development rate of planktonic Nephrops larvae (Dickey-Collas et al., 2000b). An increase in temperatures over long periods may increase egg development and halve incubation time. Chapman (1984) noted a correlation between see surface temperature and Nephrops landings 3-6 years later, which suggested an effect on recruitment. For most deep burrowing species like Nephrops norvegicus temperature changes in the water column are likely to be buffered to some extent by the sediment and may not be affected. Therefore, Nephrops norvegicus may have a low intolerance with a very high recoverability.|
|Low||Very high||Very Low||Low|
|Nephrops norvegicus is found throughout the British Isles to Icelandic waters. During the very cold winter of 1962-63 a few dead Nephrops norvegicus were caught in the North Sea although the majority were caught alive (Crisp, 1964). It has also been suggested that below 5 °C the activity of Nephrops norvegicus ceases (Jensen, 1965). Therefore, a decrease in temperature at the benchmark level is unlikely to cause mortality of this species but it can slow down egg development and increase egg incubation time. This may increase the risk of egg predation or abrasion. Therefore intolerance has been assessed as low with a very high recoverability.|
|Tolerant*||Not relevant||Not sensitive*||Moderate|
|An increase in turbidity would decrease the availability of light, which may benefit Nephrops norvegicus as it avoids areas of bright light (Loew, 1976) and prefer the dark. It has been suggested that there is a relationship between the locomotor activity of Nephrops norvegicus and environmental illumination (Aréchiga & Atkinson, 1975). Aréchiga & Atkinson (1975) reported that the burrowing activity of Nephrops norvegicus is restricted to an optimum range of light intensity from about 10,000 to 10 m-c (meter/candles) (equivalent to approximately, 10% to 0.001% of natural daylight). Therefore in shallow waters Nephrops norvegicus is active by night and in deeper water by day, at intermediate depths activity will most likely occur at dusk and dawn (Simpson, 1965). |
The compound eye of Nephrops norvegicus is well adapted to low levels of light at the sea bed and may assist Nephrops in periods of increased turbidity. Therefore an increase in turbidity would increase the activity of Nephrops norvegicus and allow colonization of shallower habitats. Therefore increased turbidity may benefit this species and tolerant* has been given.
|The circadian (daily) rhythm of locomotor activity shown by Nephrops norvegicus, with peaks of activity at dawn and dusk, is endogenously (internally) controlled. However, exogenous effects of light are thought to be important in modulating such activity (Aréchiga et al., 1980). For example, in shallow waters Nephrops norvegicus is active by night and in deeper water by day. At intermediate depths, activity will most likely occur at dusk and dawn (Simpson, 1965; Farmer, 1974a). However, Hillis (1971) found that at depths greater than 80 m tides exerted a stronger influence on activity than light intensity.
Nephrops avoids bright light and exposure to high intensities causes blindness (Loew, 1976). An increase in light resulting from decreased turbidity may affect the depth at which the species is present or more likely that Nephrops will only feed at night.The sensitivity of Nephrops to light also decreases with increasing size (Anderson, 1962: cited in Figueiredo & Thomas, 1967). Females carrying external eggs may be more sensitive than normal to light, although no information on the effects could be found (Figueiredo & Thomas, 1967). Therefore, a decrease in turbidity may increase light illumination that affects the diurnal activity of Nephrops norvegicus. Therefore intolerance has been assessed as low with an immediate recoverability.
|Not relevant||Not relevant||Not relevant||Moderate|
|Nephrops populations develop in sheltered areas and the depths at which they are found will be rarely affected by wave disturbance. Although the water movement induced by wave action in a force 8 gale can be 'felt' at 80 m depth (Hiscock, 1983), at the benchmark level, Nephrops norvegicus is unlikely to be affected and increased wave exposure is considered to be irrelevant.|
|Not relevant||Not relevant||Not relevant||Moderate|
|The depths at which Nephrops are found means that the community is already rarely affected by wave disturbance. A decrease in wave exposure is not relevant.|
|No information||No information||No information||Not relevant|
|No information was found concerning the effects of noise on Nephrops norvegicus and insufficient information was available to assess sensitivity.|
|Low||Very high||Very Low||High|
|Nephrops norvegicus is found in deep water where available light is very low. However Nephrops norvegicus are likely to respond to shading and the presence of divers and predators by retreating into their burrows. Therefore intolerance has been assessed as low with an a very high recoverability.|
|Abrasion and disturbance from dredges and trawls is likely to crush some individuals. During an experimental study it was reported that trawl caught females had fewer eggs on average than creel caught females from the same area and that it was likely that the eggs may be lost to abrasion (Chapman & Ballantyne, 1980). The proportion of eggs lost to abrasion ranged from 11-22 % in samples taken from the Clyde and West of Kintyre (Chapman & Ballantyne, 1980). Burrows are also likely to be damaged by e.g. trawling. However, Marrs et al. (1998) reported that burrows were re-established within 2 days providing that the occupant had remained unharmed (Marrs et al., 1998). Overall, intolerance has been assessed as intermediate with a high recoverability.|
|Low||Very high||Very Low||High|
|Nephrops norvegicus is tolerant of displacement, such as that caused by a passing trawl that does not kill the species but throws it into suspension, because it can reburrow into suitable substrata. Following displacement to suitable sediments Nephrops norvegicus are likely to commence burrowing immediately provided that individuals are not damaged. Nephrops norvegicus will be exposed to predators for a short time during such events so intolerance is assessed to be low with an very high recoverability.|
|No information||No information||No information||Not relevant|
|Due to insufficient information intolerance could not be assessed.|
|In general decapod crustaceans such as Nephrops norvegicus tolerate concentrations of heavy metals in their tissues because they are able to regulate the levels which are present in their cells by holding excess metal ions in non toxic forms. This is achieved by binding to blood proteins, metallothioneins, compartmentalization with lysosomes or the formation of insoluble granules (Holmes et al., 1999). Little is known about the effects of heavy metals such as manganese and cobalt in the tissues of crustaceans (Holmes et al., 1999). |
However, Baden et al. (1994) suggested that Nephrops was one of the benthic species most likely to be affected by increased metal concentrations and high concentration of manganese was found in the tissues of specimens living in hypoxic areas (Baden et al., 1994). Baden & Neil (1998) reported that there was no significant reduction in tail flip velocity or flexion force but there was a significant reduction in the maximum post-flip extension force in specimens of Nephrops that were exposed to manganese (Baden & Neil, 1998). In experimental studies, specimens of Nephrops norvegicus were exposed to methyl-mercury (MeHg), mercury (Hg), copper (Cu) and cadmium (Cd) in solution. Results showed that at sub-lethal metal concentrations, the highest concentrations of the metals were recorded in the gill tissues, the hepatopancreas, the carapace, the tail muscles and the ovaries (Canli & Furness, 1993). Results also showed the following:
|No information||No information||No information||Not relevant|
|No information on the effects of hydrocarbons on Nephrops norvegicus could be found therefore intolerance cannot be assessed. However, the Braer oil spill released 85,000 tonnes of light crude oil around the Shetland Isles in 1993 and sampling programmes found specimens of Nephrops norvegicus tainted with polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). An exclusion zone was extended shortly after the oil spill as a precautionary measure to prevent contaminated shellfish from reaching the market. Approximately 15 months later the removal of the exclusion order occurred for all crustaceans except Nephrops norvegicus as concentration of PAHs in its tissues was still too high. The removal of the exclusion order for Nephrops norvegicus occurred another 6 months later (Topping et al., 1997).|
|No information||No information||No information||Low|
|Investigations of bioturbation in radionuclide contaminated sediments on the Irish Sea floor near the Sellafield nuclear reprocessing plant found Nephrops norvegicus to be present (Hughes & Atkinson, 1997). Even though Nephrops norvegicus can be found in areas where radionuclides were present, no information on their effects on this species could be found. Therefore intolerance cannot be assessed.|
|Tolerant||Not relevant||Not sensitive||Very low|
|Hughes (1998b) suggested that burrowing megafauna often flourish in areas where the sediments are naturally rich in organic matter, such as sea lochs. For example, Nephrops norvegicus was present in high densities in Loch Sween, Scotland where the organic content was about 5% and as high as 9% in some patches (Atkinson, 1989). Hughes (1998b) reported that burrowing megafauna, including Nephrops was abundant in areas of <4% organic carbon around the Garrick Head sewage sludge dumping ground (Firth of Clyde) but absent where organic carbon exceeded 6%.|
Eutrophication may cause indirect effects such as the occurrence of hypoxia which may result in toxic metals such as manganese (Mn2+) and cobalt (Co2+) being released from the sediments and become available for accumulation within decapod crustaceans (Holmes et al., 1999). (For hypoxia and heavy metal effects see oxygenation below and heavy metals above). Sheltered, deep water habitats are likely to be sinks for organic matter. Therefore, Nephrops is likely be tolerant of high levels of naturally occurring organic matter and only susceptible to extremely high levels, perhaps as the result of sewage sludge dumping or similar activity. Therefore, tolerant has been recorded. However Nephrops is probably sensitive to indirect effects of eutrophication such as hypoxia (see below).
|Not relevant||Not relevant||Not sensitive||Low|
|Nephrops norvegicus is found within fully marine subtidal locations. It is highly unlikely that it would experience conditions of hypersalinity. Therefore this factor is considered not relevant.|
|Nephrops norvegicus is found in waters at full salinity. Thompson & Ayers (1989) noted that Nephrops larvae were found at salinities of 34-35 ppt in the wild. Farmer (1975) reported that Nephrops occurred at salinities of 29-30 ppt in the Kattegat and 35.8-38.7 ppt in the Adriatic. However, Höglund (1942; cited in Farmer, 1975) suggested that the absence of Nephrops norvegicus in the Baltic Sea was due to its intolerance to very low salinities. Even though Nephrops norvegicus is mobile and some individuals will be able to avoid unfavourable salinity changes, individuals may be affected. Therefore intolerance has been assessed as intermediate with a high recovery rate, albeit with very low confidence.|
|Diaz & Rosenberg (1995) suggested that Nephrops norvegicus was sensitive to hypoxia.
The tolerance of juvenile Nephrops to low oxygen concentrations was examined under laboratory conditions.
In moderately hypoxic conditions 38-43% saturation (3.8-4.3 mg O2/l) Nephrops norvegicus compensates by increasing production of haemocyanin (Baden et al., 1990). In the laboratory, this compensation lasted one week so at the level of the benchmark the species would not be killed. However in severe hypoxia, <20% saturation (<2 mg/l) Nephrops became less active and raised their bodies on their legs (Baden et al., 1990).
During laboratory studies at <15% O2 (O21.5mg/l) specimens of Nephrops norvegicus stopped feeding even though there was available food suggesting that hypoxia induces starvation (Baden et al., 1990).Gill discolouration may also occur in Nephrops norvegicus. Specimens from the Kattegat and Skagerrak were examined and the percentage of discoloured gills varied between 10-20% (O2 1-2 mg/l) for both sexes. Some specimens with black gills also had holes corroded into the carapace about 10 mm in diameter. It should be noted that this area has low levels of oxygen due to eutrophication.
At 12% (<1.2 mg O2/l) oxygen saturation some specimens of Nephrops norvegicus began to 'tip toe'. They supported themselves by elevating the body from the substratum with their claws and telson. The lobsters remained elevated until they became tired and sluggish and barely moved when touched for 2-3 days after which they died (Baden et al., 1990). Catches of Nephrops norvegicus were found to be high in hypoxic conditions, probably because the animals are forced out of their burrows (Eriksson & Baden, 1997). However, at 10% saturation (1.0 mg O2/l) specimens only survived for 2-4 days (Baden et al., 1990). Baden et al., (1990) reported that the Nephrops biomass declined from 10.8 kg/hr to zero from October 1984 to September 1989 in the SE Kattegat, an area affected by 1-3 month periods of low oxygen concentrations (< 2ml/l = 2.8 mg/l) during the 1980s. Therefore, intolerance has been assessed as high at the benchmark level with a moderate recovery level.
|Infection of Nephrops norvegicus by a parasitic dinoflagellate of the genus Hematodinium has been known since the mid-1980s (Field et al., 1992). Infected populations have been found in the Irish Sea, Scottish sites in the Clyde Sea area and the west and east coasts. Hematodinium has also been reported in Nephrops in the German Bight, the Skagerrak and Kattegat (Briggs & McAliskey, 2002). Infected animals are recognized by an opaque vivid body colouration, believed to be due to high densities of parasites in the haemolymph. The muscle of infected animals are said to have a bitter taste. Infection causes a general morbidity of the lobster and a reduction in swimming performance. Death usually occurs when the parasite bursts out of the haemolymph (Marrs, pers. comm.). Recovery of Hematodinium infected Nephrops has not been observed to date (Stentiford et al., 2001). Results from Irish Sea and Scottish surveys show a seasonal pattern to the level of Hematodinium infection in Nephrops norvegicus, with peaks in spring (Stentiford et al., 2001; Briggs & McAliskey, 2002). There was also a marked spatial variability in infection rates in animals in the Irish Sea (Briggs & McAliskey, 2002). The prevalence of infection is higher in immature animals though the reasons for this are still unclear. High mortalities seen during some surveys although these values may be an artefact brought about by the increased catchability of infected Nephrops as swimming performance falls with severity of infection (Stentiford et al., 2000). This may lead to overestimation of the actual prevalence of infection in fishing stocks. Briggs & McAliskey (2002) report that the disease has been present in populations of Nephrops at least since 1994 and despite inflicting juvenile mortality on the Nephrops stock, recent assessments indicated a stable situation. Although a correlation was noted with salinity, this and the interrelationships of other environmental factors affecting Nephrops stocks needs further investigation. Therefore, intolerance has been assessed as intermediate with a high recoverability level.|
|No information||No information||No information||Not relevant|
|No information was found concerning the effects of non-native species on Nephrops norvegicus.|
|Catchability of Nephrops norvegicus depends on the pattern of emergence from their burrows. This is influenced by the seasonality and the illumination of the sea bed (Hillis, 1996). In British waters, the Nephrops fishery has grown rapidly since its inception in the 1950s. Nephrops is now one of the most valuable shellfish resources in the north-eastern Atlantic (Hughes, 1998b). However, findings from the western Irish Sea suggest that the structure of some Nephrops populations may render them vulnerable to over-exploitation (Hughes, 1998b) because a gyre retains the larvae in the vicinity of the parent population, rather than being carried off by currents into other areas (Hill et al., 1996,1997). The retention of larvae by the gyre may be essential for the maintenance of the local Nephrops population and it is possible that over-exploitation of Nephrops in this area could lead to a self-perpetuating population decline owing to a reduction in recruitment. However, Hughes (1998b) reports that most stocks have the potential to recover even after heavy fishing pressure. Therefore, intolerance has been assessed as intermediate with a high recovery level.|
|No specific information was found concerning the extraction of other species. Any extraction of other species using gear that penetrates the seabed such as scallop dredging is likely to have similar effects as fishing for Nephrops norvegicus. However in other forms of demersal fishing where there is little or no penetration of the seabed may leave Nephrops unaffected in their burrows. Therefore, intolerance has been assessed as intermediate with a high recoverability.|
- no data -
|National (GB) importance||-||Global red list (IUCN) category||-|
Nephrops norvegicus is also a very important species for the fish processing industry which uses the tails to produce 'scampi' (see explanation of terms below). The UK Food Labeling Regulations of 1984 specify that the only crustacean permitted to be labeled and sold as 'scampi' is Nephrops norvegicus (Ingle, 1997).
Although the Nephrops fisheries have great commercial importance the environmental consequences of fishing for the species (using creel pots or more usually for large commercial fisheries with otter trawls) are of concern. Trawls result in large volumes of discards (non-target species and undersized commercial animals) made up of other crustaceans, fish and small Nephrops. For example, in the Clyde Sea area 50-90% (by volume) of the catch can be discarded (Bergmann et al., 2002a). Wide areas of seabed are also affected as weighted ground lines and heavy otter doors are dragged across the sediment.
Minimum landed sizes of Nephrops norvegicus are governed by European Union Council Regulations. Landed sizes vary from 7 cm total length in the Irish Sea and waters of western Scotland, to 13 cm for lobsters fished in the Skagerrak and Kattegat regions of Scandinavia. The fishery is also regulated by permitted net mesh diameters. In the UK a minimum mesh of 7 cm is permitted for fishing Nephrops norvegicus (Ingle, 1997). Limits for the Total Allowable Catch (TAC) for individual Nephrops stocks have been suggested for the west coast of Scotland (Fisheries Research Service, 2003a). However, to overcome difficulties managing such small units scientists have also suggested grouping some stocks into management areas. For instance, grouping the three Scottish west coast Nephrops stocks into a west coast management area, which corresponds to ICES finfish Area VI (Fisheries Research Service, 2003a). The TAC for the three Nephrops stocks on the west coast of Scotland was set at 11,340 tonnes in 2002 (Fisheries Research Service, 2003a).
Current exploitation levels are being maintained in the Moray Firth and Noup management areas. A slight recovery in stock size has been reported in the Moray Firth, which resulted in a TAC increase in 2002 to 2000 tonnes (Fisheries Research Service, 2003b). The TAC for the Firth of Forth and Farn Deeps area has remained at 4,170 tonnes. In the Fladden Ground Management Area the TAC has remained at 9,000 tonnes (Fisheries Research Service, 2003b).Management also applies to the larger ICES finfish areas. The TAC in 2002 for the North Sea Nephrops stock (including the management areas above and other not fished by Scottish vessels) has been set to 16,623 tonnes. This is an slight increase for levels set in 2001 but below that advised by ICES. This TAC was based upon advice for Nephrops and bycatch concerns for whitefish (Fisheries Research Service, 2003b).
Fishermen and both the EU and the UK managers have also recently agreed to technical measures including mesh size, square mesh panels, twine thickness and bycatch limits to conserve stocks on the west coast (Fisheries Research Services, 2003a).At a local level under the Inshore Fishing (Scotland Act) 1984, various technical and access limitation measures are in place or under consideration (Fisheries Research Service, 2003a).Some Nephrops fisheries terms explained
Abelló, P. & Sardá, F., 1982. The fecundity of the Norway Lobster Nephrops norvegicus (L.) off the Catalan and Portuguese coasts. Crustaceana, 43, 13-20.
Adiyodi, R.G. & Subramoniam, T., 1983. Arthropoda - Crustacea. In: Reproductive biology of invertebrates. Volume I. Oogenesis, oviposition and oosorption (ed. K.G. Adiyodi & R.G. Adiyodi), pp. 443-495. John Wiley & Sons Ltd, New York.
Aiken, D.E. & Waddy, S.L., 1980. Reproductive biology. In: The biology and management of lobsters, Volume 1. (ed. J.S. Cobb & B.F. Phillips), pp. 215-276. Academic Press, London.
Andersen, F.S., 1962. The Norway lobster in Faeroe waters. Meddelelser fra Danmarks Fiskeri-og Havundersøgelser, New Series, 3, 265-326.
Aréchiga, H. & Atkinson, R.J.A., 1975. The eye and some effects on locomotor activity in Nephrops norvegicus. Marine Biology, 32, 63-76.
Aréchiga, H., Atkinson, R.J.A. & Williams, J.A., 1980. Neurohumoral basis of circadian rhythmicity in Nephrops norvegicus (L.). Marine Behaviour and Physiology, 7, 185-197
Atkinson, R.J.A., 1989. Baseline survey of the burrowing megafauna of Loch Sween, proposed Marine Nature Reserve, and an investigation of the effects of trawling on the benthic megafauna. Report to the Nature Conservancy Council, Peterborough, from the University Marine Biological Station, Millport, pp.1-59.
Baden, S.P. & Neil, D.M., 1998. Accumulation of manganese in the haemolymph, nerve and muscle tissue of Nephrops norvegicus (L.) and its effect on neuromuscular performance. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology, A, 1, 351-359.
Baden, S.P., Depledge, M.H. & Hagerman, L., 1994. Glycogen depletion and altered copper and manganese handling in Nephrops norvegicus following starvation and exposure to hypoxia. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 103, 65-72.
Baden, S.P., Pihl, L. & Rosenberg, R., 1990. Effects of oxygen depletion on the ecology, blood physiology and fishery of the Norway lobster Nephrops norvegicus. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 67, 141-155.
Bailey, N. & Chapman, C.J., 1983. A comparison of density, length composition and growth of two Nephrops populations off the west coast of Scotland. ICES CM 1983/K:42.
Barnes, H. & Bagenal, T.B., 1951. Observations on Nephrops norvegicus and an epizoic population of Balanus crenatus. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 30, 369-380.
Bergmann, M., Wieczorek, S.K., Moore, P.G. & Atkinson, R.J.A., 2002a. Discard composition of the Nephrops fishery in the Clyde Sea area, Scotland. Fisheries Research, 57, 169-183.
BODC (British Oceanic Data Centre), 1998. United Kingdom Digital Marine Atlas: an atlas of the seas around the British Isles. 3rd ed. [CD-ROM] Birkenhead: British Oceanic Data Centre, Natural Environment Research Council.
Briggs, R.P. & McAliskey, M., 2002. The prevalence of Hematodinium in Nephrops norvegicus from the western Irish Sea. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 82, 427-433.
Briggs, R.P., Atkinson, R.J.A., McAliskey, M. & Rogerson, A., 1997. Histriobdella homari on Nephrops norvegicus from the Irish Sea and Clyde Sea area. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 77, 557-559.
Bruce, J.R., Colman, J.S. & Jones, N.S., 1963. Marine fauna of the Isle of Man. Liverpool: Liverpool University Press.
Canli, M. & Furness, R.W., 1993. Toxicity of heavy metals dissolved in sea water and influences of sex and size on metal accumulation and tissue distribution in the Norway lobster Nephrops norvegicus. Marine Environmental Research, 36, 217-236.
Castro, M., 1995. Use of length frequency analysis for estimating the age structure of the catch of Nephrops norvegicus (Crustacea: Nephropidae). ICES Marine Science Symposia, 199, 301-309.
Centre for Environment, Fisheries and Aquaculture Science (CEFAS), 2001. CEFAS 4m beam trawl survey 1998. [on-line] http://www.marlin.ac.uk, 2002-01-25
Chapman, C.J. & Ballantyne, K.A., 1980. Some observations on the fecundity of Norway lobsters in Scottish waters. International Council for the Exploration of the Seas Council Meeting Papers, C.M.1980/K:25.
Chapman, C.J. & Rice, A.L., 1971. Some direct observations on the ecology and behaviour of the Norway lobster Nephrops norvegicus (L.). Marine Biology, 10, 321-329.
Chapman, C.J., 1980. Ecology of juvenile and adult Nephrops. In The biology and management of lobsters, vol. 1. (ed. J.S. Cobb & B.F. Phillips), pp. 143-148. New York: Academic Press.
Chapman, C.J., 1984. Relationship between temperature and Scottish Nephrops landings. ICES Council Meeting Papers, C.M. 1984/K:34.
Cobb, J.S., Tamm, G.R. & Wang, D., 1982. Behavioural mechanisms influencing moult frequency in the American lobster Homarus americanus Milne Edwards. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 62, 185-200.
Cole, H.A. (ed.), 1965. Special meeting 1962: to consider problems in the exploitation and regulations of fisheries for Crustacea. Rapports et Procés - Verbaux des Réunions du Conseil International pour l'Exploration de la Mer, 156, 1-217.
Connor, D.W., Dalkin, M.J., Hill, T.O., Holt, R.H.F. & Sanderson, W.G., 1997a. Marine biotope classification for Britain and Ireland. Vol. 2. Sublittoral biotopes. Joint Nature Conservation Committee, Peterborough, JNCC Report no. 230, Version 97.06., Joint Nature Conservation Committee, Peterborough, JNCC Report no. 230, Version 97.06.
Conway Morris, S., 1995. A new phylum from the lobster's lips. Nature, 378, 661-662.
Crisp, D.J. (ed.), 1964. The effects of the severe winter of 1962-63 on marine life in Britain. Journal of Animal Ecology, 33, 165-210.
Diaz, R.J. & Rosenberg, R., 1995. Marine benthic hypoxia: a review of its ecological effects and the behavioural responses of benthic macrofauna. Oceanography and Marine Biology: an Annual Review, 33, 245-303.
Dickey-Collas, M., Briggs, R.P. & Armstrong, M.J., 2000a. Production of Nephrops norvegicus larvae in the Irish Sea. Marine Biology, 137, 973-981.
Dickey-Collas, M., Mc Quaid, N., Armstrong, M.J., Allen, M. & Briggs, R.R., 2000b. Temperature dependent stage durations of Irish Sea Nephrops larvae. Journal of Plankton Research, 22, 749-760.
Eiriksson, H., 1970. On the breeding cycle and fecundity of the Norway lobster in south west Iceland. International Council for the Exploration of the Seas Council Meeting Papers, C.M.1970/K:6.
Ennis, G.P., 1973. Food, feeding and condition of lobsters, Homarus americanus, throughout the seasonal cycle in Bonavista Bay, Newfoundland. Journal of the Fisheries Board of Canada, 30, 1905-1910.
Eriksson, S.P. & Baden, S.P., 1997. Behaviour and tolerance to hypoxia in juvenile Norway lobster (Nephrops norvegicus) of different ages. Marine Biology, 128, 49-54.
Farmer, A.S.D., 1974a. Field assessments of diurnal activity in Irish Sea populations of the Norway lobster, Nephrops norvegicus (L.) (Decapoda: Nephropidae). Estuarine and Coastal Marine Science, 2, 37-47.
Farmer, A.S.D., 1974b. Burrowing behaviour of the Norway lobster Nephrops norvegicus (L.) (Decapoda: Nephropidae). Estuarine and Coastal Marine Science, 2, 49-58.
Farmer, A.S.D., 1974c. Reproduction in Nephrops norvegicus. Journal of Zoology, 174, 161-183.
Farmer, A.S.D., 1974d. The functional morphology of the mouthparts and pereiopods of Nephrops norvegicus (L.) (Decapoda: Nephropidae). Journal of Natural History, 8, 121-142.
Farmer, A.S.D., 1975. Synopsis of the biological data on the Norway lobster Nephrops norvegicus (Linnaeus, 1758). FAO Fisheries Synopsis, 112, 1-97.
Field, R.H., Chapman, C.J., Taylor, A.C., Neil, D.M. & Vickerman, K., 1992. Infection of the Norway lobster Nephrops norvegicus by a Hematodinium-like species of dinoflagellate on the west coast of Scotland. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms, 13, 1-15.
Figueiredo, M.J. & Thomas, H.J., 1967. Nephrops norvegicus (Linnaeus, 1758) Leech - A Review. Oceanography and Marine Biology: an Annual Review, 5, 371-407.
Fish, J.D. & Fish, S., 1996. A student's guide to the seashore. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Foster-Smith, J. (ed.), 2000. The marine fauna and flora of the Cullercoats District. Marine species records for the North East Coast of England. Sunderland: Penshaw Press, for the Dove Marine Laboratory, University of Newcastle upon Tyne.
FRS (Fisheries Research Services), 2003a. Scottish Nephrops stocks : West Coast [On-line] http://www.marlab.ac.uk, 2004-02-11
FRS (Fisheries Research Services), 2003b. Scottish Nephrops stocks: North Sea [On-line] http://www.marlab.ac.uk, 2004-02-11
Garrod, C. & Harding, D., 1980. Preliminary estimates of distribution, abundance and mortality of larvae and the size of the Nephrops norvegicus (L.) spring stock from larval surveys made off the north-east coast of England in 1976. International Council for the Exploration of the Seas, Council Meeting Papers, C.M.1980/K:18.
Hill, A.E., Brown, J. & Fernand, L., 1996b. The western Irish Sea gyre: a retention system for Norway lobster (Nephrops norvegicus)? Oceanologica Acta, 19, 357-368.
Hill, A.E., Brown, J. & Fernand, L., 1997. The summer gyre in the western Irish Sea: shelf sea paradigms and management implications. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 44, 83-95.
Hillis, J.P., 1968. Larval distribution of the Nephrops norvegicus (L) in the Irish Sea and North Channel. International Council for the Exploration of the Seas, Council Meeting Papers, C.M.1968/K:6.
Hillis, J.P., 1971. Effects of light on Nephrops catches. International Council for the Exploration of the Seas, Council Meeting Papers, C.M.1971/K:3.
Hillis, J.P., 1996. Factors affecting catchability in Nephrops: current speed. International Council for the Exploration of the Seas, Council Meeting Papers, C.M.1996/K:21.
Hiscock, K., 1983. Water movement. In Sublittoral ecology. The ecology of shallow sublittoral benthos (ed. R. Earll & D.G. Erwin), pp. 58-96. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
Holmes, J.M., Gräns, A-S, Neil, D.M. & Baden, S.P., 1999. The effects of the metal ions Mn2+ and Co2+ on muscle contraction in the Norway lobster Nephrops norvegicus (L.). Journal of Comparative Physiology, B, 169, 401-410.
Howson, C.M. & Picton, B.E., 1997. The species directory of the marine fauna and flora of the British Isles and surrounding seas. Belfast: Ulster Museum. [Ulster Museum publication, no. 276.]
Hughes, D.J. & Atkinson, R.J.A., 1997. A towed video survey of megafaunal bioturbation in the north-eastern Irish Sea. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 77, 635-653.
Hughes, D.J., 1998b. Subtidal brittlestar beds. An overview of dynamics and sensitivity characteristics for conservation management of marine SACs. Natura 2000 report prepared for Scottish Association of Marine Science (SAMS) for the UK Marine SACs Project., Scottish Association for Marine Science. (UK Marine SACs Project, Vol. 3). Available from: http://www.ukmarinesac.org.uk/pdfs/britstar.pdf
Ingle, R., 1997. Crayfishes, lobsters and crabs of Europe. An illustrated guide to common and traded species. London: Chapman and Hall.
Jensen, A.J.C., 1965. Nephrops in Skagerrak and Kattegat (length, growth, tagging experiments and changes in stock and fishery yield). Rapports et Procés - Verbaux des Réunions du Conseil International pour l'Exploration de la Mer, 156, 150-154.
JNCC (Joint Nature Conservation Committee), 1999. Marine Environment Resource Mapping And Information Database (MERMAID): Marine Nature Conservation Review Survey Database. [on-line] http://www.jncc.gov.uk/mermaid
Jorgensen, O.M., 1925. The early stages of Nephrops norvegicus from the Northumberland plankton, together with a note on the post larval development of Homarus vulgaris. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 13, 871-879.
Kuris, A.M., 1991. A review of patterns and causes of crustacean brood mortality. In Crustacean Issues 7: Crustacean egg production (ed. A. Wenner and A. Kuris), pp. 117-141. Rotterdam: A.A. Belkema.
Loew, E.R., 1976. Light and photoreceptor degeneration in the Norway lobster Nephrops norvegicus (L.). Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Series B, 193, 31-44.
Loo, L.O., Baden, S.P. & Ulmstrand, M., 1993. Suspension feeding in adult Nephrops norvegicus (L.) and Homarus gammarus (L.), (Decapoda). Netherlands Journal of Sea Research, 31, 291-297.
Marine Institute, 2001. Nephrops biology [On-line]. Available from www.marine.ie/industry services/fisheries/fisheries biology, cited. 2002-01-24
Marine Institute, 2003. Irish Sea Nephrops [On-line] www.marine.ie/industry services/fisheries, 2004-03-22
Marrs, S.J., Atkinson, R.J.A. & Smith, C.J., 1998. The towed underwater TV technique for use in stock assessment of Nephrops norvegicus. International Council for the Exploration of the Sea Study Group on Life Histories of Nephrops La Coruña 4-8 May 1998, CM 1998/G:9, pp. 88-98.
National Biodiversity Network (NBN) Atlas website. Available from: http://www.nbnatlas.org. Accessed 01 April 2017
Nichols, J.H. Bennett, D.B., Symonds, D.J. & Grainger, R., 1987. Estimation of the stock size of adult Nephrops norvegicus from larvae surveys in the western Irish Sea in 1982. Journal of Natural History, 21, 1433-1450.
Parslow-Williams, P., Goodheir, C., Atkinson, R.J.A. & Taylor, A.C., 2002. Feeding energetics of the Norway lobster, Nephrops norvegicus in the Firth of Clyde, Scotland. Ophelia, 56, 101-120.
Parslow-Williams, P.J., Atkinson, R.J.A. & Taylor, A.C., 2001. Nucleic acids as indicators of nutritional condition in the Norway lobster Nephrops norvegicus. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 211, 235-243.
Picton, B.E. & Costello, M.J., 1998. BioMar biotope viewer: a guide to marine habitats, fauna and flora of Britain and Ireland. [CD-ROM] Environmental Sciences Unit, Trinity College, Dublin.
Rice, A.L. & Chapman, C.J., 1981. Observations on the burrows and burrowing behaviour of two mud-dwelling decapod crustaceans, Nephrops norvegicus and Goneplax rhomboides. Marine Biology, 10, 330-342.
Sardà, R., 1995. A review (1967-1990) of some aspects of the life history of Nephrops norvegicus. ICES Marine Science Symposia, 199, 78-88.
Sastry, A.N., 1983. Ecological aspects of reproduction. In The biology of Crustacea, vol. 8. (ed. F.J. Vernberg & W.B. Vernberg ), pp.179-270. London: Academic Press.
Schmitt, A.S.C. & Uglow, R.F., 1997. Haemolymph constituent levels and ammonia efflux rate of Nephrops norvegicus during emersion. Marine Biology, 127, 403-410.
Simpson, A.C., 1965. Variations in the catches of Nephrops norvegicus at different times of the day and night. Rapport et Procés-verbaux des Réunions Conseil permanent international pour l'Exploration de la Mer, 156, 186-189.
Spicer, J.I., Hill, A.D., Taylor, A.C. & Strang, R.H.C., 1990. Effect of aerial exposure in concentrations of selected metabolites in the blood of the Norwegian lobster Nephrops norvegicus (Crustacea: Nephropidae). Marine Biology, 105, 129-135.
Stentiford, G.D., Neil, D.M. & Atkinson, R.J.A., 2001. The relationship of Hematodinium infection prevalence in a Scottish Nephrops norvegicus population to seasonality, moulting and sex. ICES Journal of Marine Science, 58, 814-823.
Stentiford, G.D., Neil, D.M., Atkinson, R.J.A. & Bailey, N., 2000. An analysis of the swimming performance in the Norway lobster, Nephrops norvegicus L. infected by a parasitic dinoflagellate of the genus Hematodinium. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 247, 169-181.
Thomas, H.J. & Davidson, C., 1962. The food of the Norway lobster, Nephrops norvegicus. Marine Research, 3, 3-15.
Thomas, H.J., 1965a. The distribution of the Norway lobster around Scotland and the stock composition in areas of different fishing intensity. Rapports et Procés - Verbaux des réunions du Conseil International pour l'Exploration de la Mer, 156, 176-182.
Thomas, H.J., 1965b. The white fish communities associated with Nephrops norvegicus (L.) and the by-catch of White fish in the Norway lobster fishery, together with notes on Norway lobster Predators. Rapports et Procés - Verbaux des réunions du Conseil International pour l'Exploration de la Mer, 156, 155 - 160.
Thomas, H.J., 1965c. The growth of Norway lobsters in aquaria. Rapports et Procés - Verbaux des réunions du Conseil International pour l'Exploration de la Mer, 156, 209-216.
Thompson, B.M. & Ayers, R.A., 1989. Laboratory studies on the development of Nephrops norvegicus larvae. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 69, 795-801.
Thompson, B.M., Nichols, J.H. & Hillis, J.P., 1986. Estimation of stock size of adult Nephrops from larvae surveys in the Irish Sea. International Council for the Exploration of the Seas, Council Meeting Papers, C.M.1986/K:6.
Thorson, G., 1946. Reproduction and larval development of Danish marine bottom invertebrates, with special reference to the planktonic larvae in the Sound (Øresund). Meddelelser fra Kommissionen for Danmarks Fiskeri- Og Havundersögelser, Serie: Plankton, 4, 1-523.
Topping, G. Davies, J.M., Mackie, P.R. & Moffat, C.F., 1997. The impact of the Braer spill on commercial fish and shellfish. In The impact of an oil spill in turbulent waters: The Braer, pp.121-143. Edinburgh: The Stationery Office Limited.
Tuck, I.D., Atkinson, R.J.A. & Chapman, C.J., 1994. The structure and seasonal variability in the spatial distribution of Nephrops norvegicus burrows. Ophelia, 40, 13-25.
Tuck, I.D., Atkinson, R.J.A. & Chapman, C.J., 2000. Population biology of the Norway lobster Nephrops norvegicus (L.) in the Firth of Clyde, Scotland II: Fecundity and size at onset of sexual maturity. ICES Journal of Marine Science, 57, 1227-1239.
Tuck, I.D., Chapman, C.J. & Atkinson, R.J.A., 1997. Population biology of the Norway lobster, Nephrops norvegicus (L.) in the Firth of Clyde, Scotland. I. Growth and density. ICES Journal of Marine Science, 54, 125-135.
Tully, O. & Hillis, J.P., 1995. Causes and spatial scales of variability in population structure of Nephrops norvegicus (L.) in the Irish Sea. Fisheries Research, 21, 329-347.
This review can be cited as:
Last Updated: 08/05/2008