|Researched by||Marisa Sabatini & Susie Ballerstedt||Refereed by||This information is not refereed.|
|Other common names||-||Synonyms||-|
- none -
|Phylum||Mollusca||Snails, slugs, mussels, cockles, clams & squid|
|Class||Bivalvia||Clams, cockles, mussels, oysters, and scallops|
|Order||Myida||Gapers, piddocks, and shipworms|
|Typical abundance||High density|
|Male size range|
|Male size at maturity|
|Female size range||Small(1-2cm)|
|Female size at maturity|
|Growth rate||See additional information|
|Body flexibility||None (less than 10 degrees)|
|Characteristic feeding method||Active suspension feeder, Active suspension feeder|
|Typically feeds on||Phytoplankton, diatoms and bacteria.|
|Is the species harmful?||No|
Slower growth rates have been recorded in the Danish Sound where it took a population of Corbula gibba seven months to reach a mean size of 1.1 mm (Muss, 1973). Whereas in Port Erin on the Isle of Man it took one year for a population of juveniles to reach a mean size of 4 mm (Jones, 1956, Jensen, 1990). Jones (1956) also reported that the specimens of Corbula gibba on the Isle of Man had a modal length of 2.25 mm. Jensen (1990) suggested that the higher growth rates in the 1990's in Danish waters could be the result of specific events such as eutrophication. However, in Nissum Bredning no specimens were found over two years old in 1990. The size of Corbula gibba around the British Isles ranged from 0.5 mm in length to 1.2 cm in the 1940's (Yonge, 1946), and in Australian waters it can reach sizes up to 1.5 cm (CRIMP, 2000).
Corbula gibba is often found in very large numbers and is often abundant in eutrophic areas (Pearson & Rosenberg, 1978). Corbula gibba are known to occur in enormous numbers, for instance 7450/m², at certain localities in the Atlantic (Healy & Lamprell, 1996). In the Limfjord, sampling of Corbula gibba was carried out at monthly intervals from April 1986 to May 1988. Ten samples were taken with a HAPS-corer (0.014 m²) and sieved over a 1 mm sieve (Jensen, 1990). The density for Corbula gibba ranged from 9,000 to around 53,000 per m². Newly settled Corbula gibba ranged from 30,000 and 67,000 individuals per m² (Jensen, 1988). In Pula Harbour in the Northern Adriatic, Corbula gibba was found at densities ranging from 33 -121 individuals / 0.2 m² (Hrs-Brenko, 1981). Corbula gibba is also found in Australia, outside of its native range, at densities of up to 250/m² in Port Philip Bay (CRIMP, 2000).
Biomass / Production
During 1974-1984 nitrogen concentration and primary production of specimens of Corbula gibba in Nissum Bredning increased from 50-100 % and 200-300 %. The production (P) of Corbula gibba is generally high. Productivity was measured over two years and ranged from 0.7-72 g AFDW (ash free dry weight) m²/ yr. with an average of 26.8g AFDW m² / yr. in Nissum Bredning. The production / biomass ratio was amongst the highest recorded with a mean P / B of 4:2 per year (Jensen, 1990).
Laboratory studies have shown that Corbula gibba are able to survive long periods at near anoxic conditions. After 57 days, 9 out of 14 specimens survived 10 -11°C and oxygen levels of 0.18 to 0.37 mg oxygen per dm³ (Christensen, 1970).
Corbula gibba is a shallow burrowing bivalve with very short siphons (Yonge & Thompson, 1976). When placed on their normal substratum, individuals extrude their thin long foot to a distance that may exceed the length of its shell (Yonge, 1946). The process of burrowing is very slow. For example, an individual 1 cm long took about 30 minutes to burrow below the surface. This is slow when compared to other bivalve species, for example Abra alba that can disappear below the surface in less than a minute. It is the stout rounded shell that makes slow progress into the substratum, whereas Abra alba has a much flattened shell and foot therefore slides quickly into the substrata (Yonge, 1946).
Corbula gibba is consumed by gastropods, crustaceans, fish and echinoderms. Predators of Corbula gibba include the necklace shell Natica poliana (Jones, 1956), the sand star Astropecten irregularis (Christensen, 1970), the brittle star Ophiura texturata, the common starfish Asterias rubens, the common shore crab Carcinus maenas and the brown shrimp Crangon crangon (Jensen, 1988).
In Australia, Corbula gibba is an alien species and a pest (CRIMP, 2000). Corbula gibba is now widespread and highly abundant in Port Phillip Bay (Australia) (Talman, 1998; cited in Talman & Keough, 2001). Corbula gibba might affect endemic Australian species via habitat modification, predation on planktonic larvae, and competition. It also possesses a number of characteristics that may give it a competitive advantage over Australian endemic species, such as the capacity for fast growth and the ability to tolerate a wide range of environmental conditions including anoxia and eutrophication (Jensen, 1990; Talman & Keough, 2001). Concern has arisen in Australia regarding the impact of Corbula gibba on the commercial scallop Pecten fumatus. Corbula gibba and Pecten fumatus overlap in distribution, and as suspension feeders, it has been suggested that they utilize similar food and therefore may be competing for space and food (Talman & Keough, 2001). It was found that ambient densities of Corbula gibba had a significant impact on the size and growth of the native juvenile Pecten fumatus but not on mortality rates (Talman & Keough, 2001). Scallops in the presence of Corbula gibba had shells that were, on average, 35% lighter, 24% smaller and exhibited 54% less growth (based on caging experiments) (Talman, 2000: cited in NIMPIS, 2002). As a result of these concerns Australian authorities have developed new methods to control the spread of Corbula gibba. However, measures such as dredging / beam trawling / mopping, changing salinity and oxygen deprivation have all proved relatively unsuccessful (McEnnulty et al., 2001a).
|Physiographic preferences||Open coast, Offshore seabed, Strait / sound, Estuary, Enclosed coast / Embayment|
|Biological zone preferences||Lower circalittoral, Lower eulittoral, Lower infralittoral, Sublittoral fringe, Upper circalittoral, Upper infralittoral|
|Substratum / habitat preferences||Gravel / shingle, Mixed, Muddy gravel, Muddy sand, Sandy mud|
|Tidal strength preferences||Moderately Strong 1 to 3 knots (0.5-1.5 m/sec.), Strong 3 to 6 knots (1.5-3 m/sec.), Very Weak (negligible), Weak < 1 knot (<0.5 m/sec.)|
|Wave exposure preferences||Exposed, Moderately exposed, Sheltered, Very exposed, Very sheltered|
|Salinity preferences||Full (30-40 psu), Reduced (18-30 psu), See additional Information, Variable (18-40 psu)|
|Depth range||ELW - 146 m|
|Migration Pattern||Non-migratory / resident|
Corbula gibba has spread and outside its native range. This species and its larvae can survive long periods in ballast water and can generate heavy or at least significant populations in foreign harbours. It is most likely that the presence of larvae in ballast water has resulted in the introduction of Corbula gibba into Australian waters in Port Phillip Bay (McEnnulty et al., 2001b). Its occurrence in Port Phillip was the first documented record of the species outside its area of natural distribution (Talman & Keough, 2001). The clam has subsequently been found in Portland, Western Port Bay in Victoria, Devonport and the D'Entrecasteaux Channel in Tasmania (CRIMP, 2000).
Corbula gibba is specialized for life in a substratum of muddy sand mixed with larger pieces of gravel and stone that are necessary for the planting of its single byssus thread (Yonge, 1946). This preference for muddy substrata was reported by Jones (1956). Jones (1956) recorded significant differences in the numbers of Corbula gibba between two sites in Port Erin on the Isle of Man. Higher numbers of Corbula gibba were recorded in areas of coarse muddy sand. In an area only 1/2 mile seawards from the previous site the sediments were fine and the numbers of Corbula gibba present were low (Jones, 1956). In the Adriatic Corbula gibba was completely absent in clean, sandy bottoms as it prefers some mud (Hrs-Brenko, 1981).
Preference for coarse muddy sand has also been seen in Port Philip Bay where Corbula gibba are rarely found in sediments that contain less than 10% mud (<63 µm). Below 15% mud there was a strong relationship between the percentage mud and the abundance of Corbula gibba (Parry & Cohen, 2001). Above 15 % mud there was no significant relationship between the abundance of Corbula gibba and percentage mud in the finer sediments (Parry & Cohen, 2001).
Hrs-Brenko (1981) suggested that Corbula gibba thrives in eutrophic waters.
Corbula gibba has been recorded at the following salinities, 26 - 39 ppt in Port Phillip Bay (Talman, 2000: cited in NIMPIS, 2002), 28 - 34 ppt in Limfjord, Denmark, (Jensen, 1990), 27 - 32 ppt in Nissum Bredning, Denmark (Jensen, 1988) and 8.2-38.6 ppt in Elefsis Bay, Greece (Theodorou, 1994).
|Reproductive type||Gonochoristic (dioecious)|
|Reproductive frequency||Annual protracted|
|Fecundity (number of eggs)||No information|
|Generation time||See additional information|
|Age at maturity||Insufficient information|
|Season||Summer - Autumn|
|Life span||1-2 years|
|Duration of larval stage||See additional information|
|Larval dispersal potential||No information|
|Larval settlement period||Insufficient information|
Larval Settling Time
The settling time of Corbula gibba larvae is variable depending on location and may take several months (Jensen, 1988). In Danish waters settlement occurred in August. (Jensen, 1988) states that the settlement of Corbula gibba is very distinct with very few specimens below 2 mm in size during the month of September in Limjford. The recruitment of Corbula gibba was achieved within one week after settlement (Jensen, 1988). However, high moralities of newly settled individuals occurred during the first month of settling. It was suggested that this was may be due to predation from epibenthic predators. Low and constant mortality occurred during the winter months with decreases in abundance again in spring and early summer. It was suggested that these observation could be due to the weakened conditions in the bivalves that had spawned (Jensen, 1988).
This MarLIN sensitivity assessment has been superseded by the MarESA approach to sensitivity assessment. MarLIN assessments used an approach that has now been modified to reflect the most recent conservation imperatives and terminology and are due to be updated by 2016/17.
|Corbula gibba lives infaunally in muddy sandy sediments. Removal of the substratum would also remove the entire population of this species, and so the intolerance has been assessed to be high with a moderate recoverability. See additional information for recoverability.|
|Corbula gibba is a burrower in shallow muddy or sandy sediments and uses a byssus thread to attach to pieces of shell or rock in the sediment (CRIMP, 2000). It uses its short inhalant siphon above the sediment for feeding and respiration. If smothered Corbula gibba would most likely burrow up through the new sediment. Corbula gibba is also considered to be generally tolerant of prolonged oxygen deprivation (see deoxygenation below). Laboratory studies on Corbula gibba have shown that they can survive up to 57 days in near anoxic conditions (Jensen, 1990). Therefore Corbula gibba could probably survive for 1 month under smothering conditions (see benchmark). However, sudden smothering of the sediment would halt feeding. Therefore, intolerance has been assessed as low with a immediate recoverability level.|
|Tolerant*||Not relevant||Not sensitive*||Moderate|
|Levels of suspended sediment are likely to be most relevant to feeding. An increase in suspended sediment is likely to increase the rate of siltation and the availability of food. This will effect Corbula gibba as it is a suspension feeder. However, Corbula gibba is one of the most efficient bivalve particle feeders (Kiørboe & Mohlenberg, 1981). In the Limfjord, increased winds caused a greater mixing of the water column and probably greater resuspension of bottom material in 1986. As a result population increases were recorded with higher densities and faster growth than the previous year when wind speeds were not as high (Jensen, 1990). Corbula gibba also has a well developed cleansing mechanism to deal with the accumulation of pseudofaeces by posterior and periodic contractions of the quick muscle component in the adductors (Yonge & Thompson, 1976). An increase in sediment may benefit Corbula gibba and tolerant* has been recorded.|
|Levels of suspended sediment are likely to be most relevant to feeding. A decrease in suspended sediment is likely to decrease the availability of food for suspension feeders like Corbula gibba. Mortality is unlikely to occur within a month (see benchmark) but growth rates may be slower and so intolerance is assessed as low. When suspended sediment levels return to normal so to will food availability and recoverability is assessed as immediate.|
|Low||Very high||Very Low||Low|
|The effect of desiccation stress on Corbula gibba is likely to be minimal as it lives infaunally in muddy sand and is able to burrow to avoid or reduce the effects of desiccation. Bivalves are also able to respond to desiccation stress by valve adduction during periods of emersion. Nevertheless, some stress is likely and an intolerance of low has been recorded but with a very high recoverability.|
|An increase in emergence may cause thermal stress on Corbula gibba and increase the risk of dislodgement from the sediments because of the increased strength of wave action, especially in shallow water populations. Therefore, an intolerance of intermediate is given with a high recoverability.|
|Tolerant*||Not relevant||Not sensitive*||Low|
|A decrease in emergence, is not likely to stress Corbula gibba and may benefit the species, allowing Corbula gibba to colonize further up the shore and increase its habitat range. Periods of thermal stress, risk of predation and dislodgement would be reduced. Therefore, tolerant* is recorded.|
|An increase in the water flow rate, would increase the availability of food that may increase growth rates and the size of individual Corbula gibba. However increased water flow may cause the substratum to be disturbed and the sediment on the seabed to erode. This scouring of sand and gravel causes coarse sediments to become unstable and difficult to burrow perhaps leading to the dislodgement and abrasion of Corbula gibba. The sediments and the species within may then be transported to another area. High water flow rates may also damage or prevent settlement of larvae that can lower recruitment levels and lower the population present (Hiscock, 1983). Therefore, an intolerance of intermediate has been assessed with high recoverability.|
|A decrease in the water flow rate could result in a reduction in food that may be obtained from suspension feeding in Corbula gibba, which could lower growth rates and the sizes of individuals within the population. It may also lower the dispersion of planktonic larvae. In areas exposed to less water flow, the sediments will be more stable (Hiscock, 1983) and particles may become finer and the substratum may become more muddy which is the preferred substrata of Corbula gibba. However, a decrease in water flow over the benchmark level of 1 year may also cause the substratum to become too muddy for Corbula gibba, which prefers sediments that contain between 10 - 15 % mud (Parry & Cohen, 2001). Therefore, intolerance has been assessed as intermediate with a high recoverability level.|
|Tolerant||Not relevant||Not sensitive||Low|
|Corbula gibba is present in Mediterranean and Australian waters. Growth has been recorded at the following temperatures:|
|Tolerant||Not relevant||Not sensitive|
|Corbula gibba has a wide geographic range, occurring in waters throughout the British Isles and is likely to be tolerant of lower temperatures than it experiences in Britain and Ireland. Corbula gibba would probably tolerate a decrease in temperature (see benchmark) as it has been found at temperatures between - 1 to 16 °C in the Limfjord (Jensen, 1990), and also at 7.5 °C in the Kattegat (Christensen, 1970). Therefore, Corbula gibba has been assessed to be tolerant to decreases in temperature.|
|Low||Very high||Very Low||Low|
|Corbula gibba does not require light therefore, the effects of increased turbidity on light attenuation are not directly relevant. An increase in turbidity may however, affect primary production in the water column that would lower phytoplankton availability for Corbula gibba, as it is a suspension feeder, but it can use other food sources e.g. particulate organic matter. Therefore, intolerance has been assessed as low with a very high recoverability.|
|Not relevant||Not relevant||Not relevant||Low|
|Corbula gibba does not require light therefore, the effects of a decrease in turbidity on light attenuation are not directly relevant. A decrease in turbidity may however, affect primary production in the water column that would increase phytoplankton availability for Corbula gibba. That could improve growth rates of Corbula gibba and also increase their abundance. A decrease in turbidity is unlikely to affect Corbula gibba. Therefore not relevant has been recorded.|
|Corbula gibba inhabits coarse muddy / sandy environments. This preference for coarse muddy sands was observed offshore of Port Erin on the Isle of Man where significant differences in the numbers of Corbula gibba was recorded. In areas where the substratum was coarse, the numbers of Corbula gibba were abundant. Whereas in areas where the substratum was fine the abundance of Corbula gibba was low (Jones, 1956).
An increase in wave exposure is likely to change the nature of the sediment in shallow depths making it less muddy and less suitable for Corbula gibba . The dispersion and settlement of larval and juvenile stages may also be disrupted. Damage or the withdrawal of the siphons, which reduces the ability of Corbula gibba to feed could occur. Increased wave exposure may also be detrimental to predators of Corbula gibba and prevent them from feeding. Intolerance has been assessed as intermediate with a high recoverability.
|Changes in wave exposure are likely to have marked effects on the sediment dynamics. If the wave exposure is decreased sediments that are deposited will slowly consolidate becoming more fine and muddy and can increase the substratum. Decreased exposure could increase siltation and the risk of smothering. Corbula gibba is specialized for its preferred habitat of muddy sand, however a decrease in wave exposure over the benchmark period of 1 year may cause the substrata to become too muddy for Corbula gibba. Therefore, intolerance has been assessed as intermediate with a high recoverability.|
|Tolerant||Not relevant||Not sensitive||High|
|No information was found concerning the intolerance levels of Corbula gibba to noise. This species is not expected to be sensitive to the level of the benchmark.|
|Tolerant||No information||Not sensitive||High|
|Corbula gibba probably has little visual acuity and was recorded to be not sensitive to this factor.|
|Corbula gibba has a small solid shell. The shells of Corbula gibba may be vulnerable to physical damage (from e.g. otter boards) (Rumohr & Krost, 1991). However, the size of Corbula gibba relative to the meshes of commercial trawls may ensure survival of a moderate proportion of disturbed individuals that pass through them. Specimens exposed on the sediment surface would be at risk of predation. Bergmann & van Santbrink (2000) reported direct mortalities of <0.5%, 9% and 14% from the passage of an experimental beam trawl, depending on the type of trawl used and sampling method employed. They noted that smaller species or smaller individuals of larger species suffered lower mortalities. Overall, they concluded that Corbula gibba was amongst the species studied that were relatively resistant to bottom trawling (Bergmann & van Santbrink, 2000).
Ball et al. (2000) noted that Corbula gibba was not found at their offshore experimental otter trawling site but was present at an untrawled, ship wreck site. In a further study in Loch Gareloch, Corbula gibba was identified as one of the species sensitive to fishing disturbance. The Gareloch study carried out otter trawls at monthly intervals for 16 months in a previously undisturbed area, sheltered sea loch. The experimental trawling resulted in changes in the sediment and the associated community due to increase in opportunistic polychaetes, resulting in a 45% decrease in the abundance of Corbula gibba with respect to reference sites. However, the Gareloch study represents a level of impact greater than the benchmark. Nevertheless, both of the experimental trawling studies result in mortality. Therefore, an intolerance of intermediate is recorded with a high recovery level.
|Fishing for demersal species will disturb the surface layer of sediment and any protruding or shallow burrowing species. The small size of Corbula gibba may ensure that individuals are sieved over the mesh of fishing nets. Once through the net Corbula gibba are then able to resettle in the substrata.Displacement may also occur during storms if the sediment is mobilized. The increased wave action may cause whole populations to be lifted along with the substratum and transported by sediment bedload transport to a different area. Corbula gibba can burrow back down into the sediment when it is displaced to the surface therefore, it is probably relatively tolerant of displacement. However, it burrows slowly and when displaced the risk of predation by predators is increased which can lead to some mortalities of Corbula gibba. Therefore, an intolerance of intermediate has been recorded with a high recoverability.|
|No specific information was found concerning the effect of synthetic chemicals on Corbula gibba. However, inference may be drawn from related species. Burrowing and avoidance behaviour in the bivalves Tellina tenuis and Limecola balthica becomes impaired when they are exposed to phenol but no deaths occurred. Impairment of burrowing can leave bivalves vulnerable to predation and wave action (Møhlen & Kiørboe, 1983). High levels of tributyl tin (TBT), the toxic component of many antifouling paints, has been implicated in the slow growth and shell malformation 'balling' in the oyster Magallana gigas and larval mortality in Mytilus edulis (Beaumont et al., 1989). Overall, an intolerance of intermediate has been suggested, albeit with very low confidence.|
|Heavy metals can inhibit the activity of many enzymes and affect the function of several cellular constituents such as membranes, they can also inhibit growth, the production of the byssal thread, respiration, filtration rate, protein synthesis, the uptake of amino acids by various tissues and compromise reproduction in bivalves (full review by Aberkali & Trueman, 1985). The embryonic and larval stages of bivalves are the most vulnerable to heavy metals (Bryan, 1984).Bryan (1984), states that Hg is the most toxic metal to bivalve molluscs in experimental studies while copper (Cu), cadmium (Cd) and zinc (Zn) seem to be most problematic for bivalves in the field. For example:|
|No information||No information||No information||Not relevant|
|Hydrocarbons may produce substantially reduced feeding, respiration and energy metabolism rates that reduce growth and reproduction as observed in Mya arenaria (Cooper & Cristini, 1994) and Mytilus edulis (Moore et al., 1987). Reproduction may also be compromised on exposure to hydrocarbons, for example Limecola balthica showed gamete resorption and abnormal gamete development. Additional effects of hydrocarbons on bivalves include a decline in tissue and shell growth, increased susceptibility to predation, parasitism and disease (Moore et al., 1987).However, oil spills may benefit some bivalve molluscs. For instance, the 1978 Amoco Cadiz oil spill may have benefited the population of Abra alba present due to the nutrient enrichment that was caused by the oil spill. The biomass of the community doubled as a result of an increase in Abra alba abundance following the oil spill. Throughout the 20 years of monitoring the community's recovery, Abra alba has been one of the dominant species recorded (Dauvin, 1998). Corbula gibba has been noted as being indifferent to organic pollution (Pearson & Rosenberg, 1978) and has been recorded to often thrive in nutrient enriched waters (Crema et al., 1991) (see nutrients below). However, no information on the effects of hydrocarbon contamination on Corbula gibba was found, and intolerance has not been assessed.|
|No information||No information||No information||Not relevant|
|No specific information was found concerning the effects of radionuclides on Corbula gibba.|
|Tolerant*||Not relevant||Not sensitive*||Moderate|
|Corbula gibba is known to be a pioneer species in recolonization of defaunated seabeds and prominent in sub normal zones in areas polluted or enriched by organic material (Pearson & Rosenberg, 1978; Jensen 1990). It has also been suggested that Corbula gibba are indicative of unstable environments such as ones with low oxygen levels and areas of eutrophication (Crema et al., 1991). For example, samples were taken of the macrozoobenthic community in Elefsis Bay in the northern Adriatic in 1985. Elefsis Bay suffered from nutrient enrichment where nutrient pollution mainly came from the disposal of untreated waste waters of about 600,000 m³ / day at the entrance of the bay. The major nutrient inputs recorded were from phosphates, silicates, nitrites, nitrates and ammonium. Eutrophication of the northern Adriatic Sea was marked by red tides, extensive mucus aggregates, anoxic bottom conditions and mass mortalities. Despite this anoxia, large abundance's of Corbula gibba were recorded. The abundance of Corbula gibba at one sampling station was 1396 ind/m² and during the summer of 1989 Corbula gibba was the only living species recorded (Theodorou, 1994). Nutrient enrichments appear to benefit Corbula gibba by allowing it to increase its population size and to further colonize an area. It was suggested that as the amount of organic material reaching sediments increases, the larger species and deeper burrowing species are gradually eliminated and replaced by greater numbers of bivalves like Corbula gibba (Pearson & Rosenberg, 1978). Therefore, nutrient enrichment may benefit Corbula gibba and tolerant* has been recorded.|
|Tolerant||Not relevant||Not sensitive||Very low|
|Corbula gibba are mainly found at oceanic salinities but have also been recorded in 26 - 39 ppt in Port Phillip Bay (Talman, 2000: cited in NIMPIS, 2002). Therefore, it is likely that Corbula gibba would tolerate an increase in salinity at the benchmark level.|
|Tolerant||Not relevant||Not sensitive|
|Corbula gibba are found at oceanic salinities and in estuarine waters showing a tolerance for a reduction in salinity. In Elefsis Bay, Corbula gibba can be found at salinities as low as 8.2 ppt (Theodorou, 1994). Therefore Corbula gibba is likely to be tolerant of decreases in salinity.|
|Diaz & Rosenberg (1995) state that Corbula gibba is resistant to severe hypoxia. Corbula gibba is often found at the edge of anoxic and azoic areas (Pearson & Rosenberg, 1978) and it has been suggested that it is highly tolerant to environmental variability (Rosenberg, 1997).
|Low||Very high||Very Low||Low|
The ciliate Sphenophrya dosiniae has been found living in specimens of Corbula gibba. If a lamellibranch is infected with Sphenophrya dosiniae, the ciliates will always occur in great numbers in the mantle cavity of their host (Fenchel, 1965). Sphenophrya dosiniae was found in 40 % of the specimens of Corbula gibba in the Gullmarfjord (Fenchel, 1965). No specific information concerning the effects of these ciliates on Corbula gibba was found.However, in the bivalve Crassostrea virginica, Sphenophrya dosiniae induced the formation of a lump known as a 'xenoma' that contains hundreds of ciliates (Weissenberg, 1922; cited in Laucker, 1983). Neither the ciliates or the xenomas appeared to distress Crassostrea virginica. However, parasitic infections are likely to result in sub-lethal effects and an intolerance of low has been recorded with a very high recoverability.
|No information||No information||No information||Low|
|There is no evidence of adverse effects or competition from non-native species on Corbula gibba. Therefore, an intolerance and recoverability assessment could not be made.|
|Not relevant||Not relevant||Not relevant||Low|
|Corbula gibba are not targeted for extraction. Therefore, an intolerance assessment is not relevant.|
|Bergmann & van Santbrink (2000) reported direct mortalities of <0.5%, 9% and 14%from the passage of an experimental beam trawl, depending on the type of trawl used and sampling method employed. They noted that smaller species or smaller individuals of larger species suffered lower mortalities. Overall, they concluded that Corbula gibba was amongst the species studied that were relatively resistant to bottom trawling (Bergmann & van Santbrink, 2000).
However, Ball et al. (2000) noted that Corbula gibba was not found at their offshore experimental otter trawling site but was present at an untrawled, ship wreck site. In a further study in Loch Gareloch, Corbula gibba was identified as one of the species sensitive to fishing disturbance. The Gareloch study carried out otter trawls at monthly intervals for 16 months in a previously undisturbed area, sheltered sea loch. The experimental trawling resulted in changes in the sediment and the associated community due to increase in opportunistic polychaetes, resulting in a 45% decrease in the abundance of Corbula gibba with respect to reference sites. Corbula gibba can burrow back down into the sediment when it is displaced to the surface but burrows slowly. While displaced onto the sediment surface the risk of predation by predators is increased which can lead to additional mortalities of Corbula gibba. Therefore, an intolerance of intermediate has been recorded. Corbula gibba has also been found to dominate during the first stages of post dredging recolonization (Talman & Keough, 2001). Therefore, recovery is likely to be rapid.
Recruitment may be sporadic, and prolonged long term variations in the abundance of Corbula gibba have been reported. For example, a high abundance of Corbula gibba was recorded (about 1,500 /m²) between 1910 and 1935. This was followed by a constant low abundance (about 100 /m²) until 1952, when abundances rose again (Jensen, 1988).Corbula gibba is known to be a pioneer species in recolonization of defaunated seabeds and the species is abundant in sub normal zones in areas polluted or enriched by organic material (Pearson & Rosenberg, 1978; Jensen, 1990). Overall it is likely that this species has good powers of population recovery. A population that is reduced in extent or abundance could potentially recover within a few years, depending on recruitment. Its ability to recolonize defaunated area suggests that the population would recover is a relatively short period of time even if the population was removed.
- no data -
|National (GB) importance||-||Global red list (IUCN) category||-|
Introduction of Corbula gibba to Australian waters.
Corbula gibba is an alien species and a pest (CRIMP, 2000) in Australian waters. Corbula gibba is now widespread and highly abundant in Port Phillip Bay, (Australia) (Talman, 1998; cited in Talman & Keough, 2001). Corbula gibba possesses a number of characteristics that may give it a competitive advantage over Australian endemic species, such as the capacity for fast growth and the ability to tolerate a wide range of environmental conditions including anoxia, and eutrophication (Jensen, 1990; Talman & Keough, 2001). Concern has arisen in Australia for one native species the commercial scallop Pecten fumatus. Corbula gibba and Pecten fumatus overlap in distribution, and as suspension feeders they presumably utilize similar food.
Aberkali, H.B. & Trueman, E.R., 1985. Effects of environmental stress on marine bivalve molluscs. Advances in Marine Biology, 22, 101-198.
Ball, B., Munday, B. & Tuck, I., 2000b. Effects of otter trawling on the benthos and environment in muddy sediments. In: Effects of fishing on non-target species and habitats, (eds. Kaiser, M.J. & de Groot, S.J.), pp 69-82. Oxford: Blackwell Science.
Beaumont, A.R., Newman, P.B., Mills, D.K., Waldock, M.J., Miller, D. & Waite, M.E., 1989. Sandy-substrate microcosm studies on tributyl tin (TBT) toxicity to marine organisms. Scientia Marina, 53, 737-743.
Bergman, M.J.N. & Van Santbrink, J.W., 2000b. Fishing mortality of populations of megafauna in sandy sediments. In The effects of fishing on non-target species and habitats (ed. M.J. Kaiser & S.J de Groot), 49-68. Oxford: Blackwell Science.
Bryan, G.W., 1984. Pollution due to heavy metals and their compounds. In Marine Ecology: A Comprehensive, Integrated Treatise on Life in the Oceans and Coastal Waters, vol. 5. Ocean Management, part 3, (ed. O. Kinne), pp.1289-1431. New York: John Wiley & Sons.
Christensen, A.M., 1970. Feeding Biology of the sea star Astropecten irregularis. Ophelia, 8, 1-134.
Cooper, K. & Cristini, A., 1994. The effects of oil spills on bivalve molluscs and blue crabs. In Before and After an Oil Spill (ed. J. Burger), pp. 142 -159. New Brunswick, New Jersey: Rutgers University Press.
Crema, R., Castelli, A. & Prevedelli, D., 1991. Long term eutrophication effects on macrofaunal communities in Northern Adriatic Sea. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 22, 503 - 508.
CRIMP (Centre for Research on Introduced Marine Pests)., 2000. Marine Pest Information Sheet, European Clam (Corbula gibba), Infosheet No. 8. [On - Line] http://crimp.marine.csiro.au/Reports/Infosht8_Corbula0700S3.pdf, 2004-01-21
Crompton, T.R., 1997. Toxicants in the aqueous ecosystem. New York: John Wiley & Sons.
Dauvin, J.C., 1998. The fine sand Abra alba community of the Bay of Morlaix twenty years after the Amoco Cadiz oil spill. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 36, 669-676.
Diaz, R.J. & Rosenberg, R., 1995. Marine benthic hypoxia: a review of its ecological effects and the behavioural responses of benthic macrofauna. Oceanography and Marine Biology: an Annual Review, 33, 245-303.
Fenchel, T., 1965. Ciliates from Scandinavian Molluscs. Ophelia, 2, 71 - 174.
Hartnoll, R.G., 1983. Substratum. In Sublittoral ecology. The ecology of the shallow sublittoral benthos (ed. R. Earll & D.G. Erwin), pp. 97-124. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
Hayward, P., Nelson-Smith, T. & Shields, C. 1996. Collins pocket guide. Sea shore of Britain and northern Europe. London: HarperCollins.
Hayward, P.J. & Ryland, J.S. (ed.) 1995b. Handbook of the marine fauna of North-West Europe. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Healy, J.M. & Lamprell, K.L., 1996. The Atlantic - Mediterranean bivalve, Corbula gibba (Olivi) (Corbulidae: Myoidea) in Port Phillip Bay, Victoria. Memoirs of the Queensland Museum, 39, 315-331.
Hiscock, K., 1983. Water movement. In Sublittoral ecology. The ecology of shallow sublittoral benthos (ed. R. Earll & D.G. Erwin), pp. 58-96. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
Hrs-Brenko, M., 1981. Population studies of Corbula gibba (Olivi), Bivalvia, Corbulidae, in the Northern Adriatic Sea. Journal of Molluscan Studies, 47, 17 - 24.
Jensen, J., 1990. Increased abundance and growth of the suspension feeding bivalve Corbula gibba in a shallow part of the eutrophic Limfjord Denmark. Netherlands Journal of Sea Research, 27, 101-108.
Jensen, J.N., 1988. Recruitment, growth and mortality of juvenile Corbula gibba and Abra alba in the Limfjord, Denmark. The Baltic Sea environment: history, eutrophication, recruitment and toxicology. Kieler Meeresforschungen (Sonderheft), 6, 357-365.
JNCC (Joint Nature Conservation Committee), 1999. Marine Environment Resource Mapping And Information Database (MERMAID): Marine Nature Conservation Review Survey Database. [on-line] http://www.jncc.gov.uk/mermaid
Jones, N. S., 1956. The fauna and biomass of a muddy sand deposit off Port Erin, Isle of Man. Journal of Animal Ecology, 25, 217 - 252.
Karlson, K., Rosenberg, R. & Bonsdorff, E., 2002. Temporal and spatial large - scale effects of eutrophication and oxygen deficiency on benthic fauna in scandinavian and baltic waters - a review. Oceanography and Marine Biology: an Annual Review, 40, 427-489.
Kitching, J. A., Ebling, F. J., Gamble, J. C., Hoare, R., McLeod, A. A. Q. R. and Norton T. A., 1976. The ecology of Lough Ine XIX. Seasonal changes in the western trough. Journal of Animal Ecology, 45, 731 - 758.
Kiørboe, T. & Møhlenberg, F., 1981. Particle selection in suspension-feeding bivalves. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 5, 291-296.
Lauckner, G., 1983. Diseases of Mollusca: Bivalvia. In Diseases of marine animals. Vol. II. Introduction, Bivalvia to Scaphopoda (ed. O. Kinne), pp. 477-961. Hamburg: Biologische Anstalt Helgoland.
Møhlenberg, F. & Kiørboe, T., 1983. Burrowing and avoidance behaviour in marine organisms exposed to pesticide-contaminated sediment. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 14 (2), 57-60.
McEnnulty, F. R., Bax, N. J., Schaffelke, B. and Campbell, M. L., 2001b. A review of rapid response options for the control of ABWMAC listed introduced marine pest species and related taxa in Australian waters. Centre for Research on Introduced Marine Pests, Technical Report No. 23. [On-Line] http://crimp.marine.csiro.au/reports/CRIMPTechReport23.pdf, 2004-01-27
McEnnulty, F.R., Jones, T.E. and Bax, N.J. , 2001a. The Web-based Rapid Response Toolbox [On-line] http://crimp.marine.csiro.au, 2004-02-03
Moodley, L., Heip, C.H.R. and Middelburg J.J., 1998. Benthic activity in sediments of the northwestern Adriatic Sea: sediment oxygen consumption, macro - and meiofauna dynamics, Journal of Sea Research, 40, 263 -280.
Moore, M.N.,Livingstone D.R., Widdows J., Lowe, D.M. & Pipe, R.K., 1987. Molecular, cellular and physiological effects of oil derived hydrocarbons on molluscs and their use in impact assessment. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, 316. 603 - 623.
Muus, K., 1973. Settling, growth and mortality of young bivalves in the Øresund. Ophelia, 12, 79-116.
NIMPIS, (ed) Hewitt C.L., Martin R.B., Sliwa C., McEnnulty, F.R., Murphy, N.E., Jones T. and Cooper, S., 2002. Corbula gibba species summary. National Introduced Marine Pest Information System http://crimp.marine.csiro.au/nimpis, 2004-02-02
Parry, G.D. & Cohen, B.F., 2001. Exotic species established in Western Port, including an assessment of the status of the exotic species Corbula gibba, Alexandrium spp, Gymnodinium spp and Undaria pinnatifida. Report No. 45 [On-line] http://www.dse.vic.gov.au, 2004-01-28
Pearson, T.H. & Rosenberg, R., 1978. Macrobenthic succession in relation to organic enrichment and pollution of the marine environment. Oceanography and Marine Biology: an Annual Review, 16, 229-311.
Picton, B.E. & Costello, M.J., 1998. BioMar biotope viewer: a guide to marine habitats, fauna and flora of Britain and Ireland. [CD-ROM] Environmental Sciences Unit, Trinity College, Dublin.
Rasmussen, E., 1973. Systematics and ecology of the Isefjord marine fauna (Denmark). Ophelia, 11, 1-507.
Rosenberg, R. & Loo, L., 1988. Marine eutrophication induced oxygen deficiency: effects on soft bottom fauna, western Sweden. Ophelia, 29, 213-225.
Rosenberg, R., 1997. Benthic macrofaunal dynamics, production and dispersion in an oxygen deficient estuary of west Sweden. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 26, 107 - 133.
Rumohr, H. & Krost, P., 1991. Experimental evidence of damage to benthos by bottom trawling with special reference to Arctica islandica. Meeresforschung, 33 (4), 340-345.
Rygg, B., 1985. Effect of sediment copper on benthic fauna. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 25, 83-89.
Talman, S.G. & Keough, M.J., 2001. Impact of an exotic clam, Corbula gibba, on the commercial scallop Pecten fumatus in Port Phillip Bay, south-east Australia: evidence of resource-restricted growth in a subtidal environment. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 221, 135 - 143.
Tebble, N., 1976. British Bivalve Seashells. A Handbook for Identification, 2nd ed. Edinburgh: British Museum (Natural History), Her Majesty's Stationary Office.
Theodoeou, A.J., 1994. The ecological state of the Elefsis Bay prior to the operation of the Athens Sea outfall. Water, Science and Technology, 30, 161 - 171.
Thorson, G., 1946. Reproduction and larval development of Danish marine bottom invertebrates, with special reference to the planktonic larvae in the Sound (Øresund). Meddelelser fra Kommissionen for Danmarks Fiskeri- Og Havundersögelser, Serie: Plankton, 4, 1-523.
Yonge, C.M., 1946. On habits and adaptation of Aloidis (Corbula) gibba. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 26, 358-376.
Centre for Environmental Data and Recording, 2018. Ulster Museum Marine Surveys of Northern Ireland Coastal Waters. Occurrence dataset https://www.nmni.com/CEDaR/CEDaR-Centre-for-Environmental-Data-and-Recording.aspx accessed via NBNAtlas.org on 2018-09-25.
Conchological Society of Great Britain & Ireland, 2018. Mollusc (marine) data for Great Britain and Ireland - restricted access. Occurrence dataset: https://doi.org/10.15468/4bsawx accessed via GBIF.org on 2018-09-25.
Conchological Society of Great Britain & Ireland, 2018. Mollusc (marine) data for Great Britain and Ireland. Occurrence dataset: https://doi.org/10.15468/aurwcz accessed via GBIF.org on 2018-09-25.
Kent Wildlife Trust, 2018. Biological survey of the intertidal chalk reefs between Folkestone Warren and Kingsdown, Kent 2009-2011. Occurrence dataset: https://www.kentwildlifetrust.org.uk/ accessed via NBNAtlas.org on 2018-10-01.
Kent Wildlife Trust, 2018. Kent Wildlife Trust Shoresearch Intertidal Survey 2004 onwards. Occurrence dataset: https://www.kentwildlifetrust.org.uk/ accessed via NBNAtlas.org on 2018-10-01.
Merseyside BioBank., 2018. Merseyside BioBank (unverified). Occurrence dataset: https://doi.org/10.15468/iou2ld accessed via GBIF.org on 2018-10-01.
National Biodiversity Network (NBN) Atlas website. Available from: https://www.nbnatlas.org.
OBIS, 2019. Global map of species distribution using gridded data. Available from: Ocean Biogeographic Information System. www.iobis.org. Accessed: 2019-01-17
South East Wales Biodiversity Records Centre, 2018. SEWBReC Molluscs (South East Wales). Occurrence dataset: https://doi.org/10.15468/jos5ga accessed via GBIF.org on 2018-10-02.
This review can be cited as:
Last Updated: 17/04/2008