Pollack (Pollachius pollachius)
|Researched by||Sonia Rowley||Refereed by||Admin|
|Other common names||-||Synonyms||-|
Recorded distribution in Britain and IrelandThis species is found off all coasts of Britain and Ireland.
HabitatThis species can be found to >100 meters depth, either solitary or in small shoals. It is both an offshore pelagic or coastal benthic species found on the sea bed around rocks, wrecks and kelp forests.
- Large fish up to 130 cm in length and 14 kg in weight.
- Eyes are yellow and conspicuously large.
- Three dorsal fins with the first being triangular and 2 anal fins.
- The lateral line is dark green and arches over the pectoral fin before straightening out.
- Colour typically silvery with a brown or green back and yellow-silver sides.
Additional informationThis is both a solitary and shoaling species, more likely to shoal during spawning events. Spawning in Pollachius pollachius occurs up to ca 100 meters depth between January and April, with the greatest intensity during March (Wheeler, 1969). The eggs and larvae drift in the water column towards the shallower coastal waters. Within the first year, juveniles can reach up to 17 cm in length. Juveniles live amongst rocks and algae mainly feeding on crustaceans in the shallows and then venture out to 40-100 m when about three years old with a body length of up to 40 cm (Wheeler, 1969). Young juveniles may also be found in estuaries.
Large, older individuals of Pollachius pollachius are usually darker in colour, where juveniles are green, brown or occasionally crimson and gold. Such colouration ensures the juveniles are inconspicuous, although they may be easily confused with juveniles of Pollachius virens (Saithe) and other cod species. Adults of Pollachius virens have a straight lateral line and equal length jaws. Other similar species that may be confused for Pollachius pollachius are: Merlangius merlangus (whiting) that has an upper jaw longer than the lower, and Melanogrammus aeglefinus, that has a black pectoral spot and a black lateral line (Gibson et al., 2001).
Pollachius pollachius feeds on deep sea prawns, Clupea harengus, Ammodytes tobianus, Sprattus sprattus, Mallotus villosus and other open water fish, and can be observed hanging above or within kelp forests and wrecks. This species hunts singly or in small groups by lying close to the sea bed watching sand eels shoaling above them. They suddenly dart up and grab their prey then resume their former position to let the shoal re-group. Such behaviour has been observed in juveniles hunting on groups of mysid shrimps or Gobius flavesecens (Naylor, 2003).
Pollachius pollachius has a small commercial fishery often caught with Gadus morhua in gill nets, traps or long lines. However, pollack is a popular species with anglers as they readily take bait (Wheeler, 1969).
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Last Updated: 03/07/2008