information on the biology of species and the ecology of habitats found around the coasts and seas of the British Isles

Bibliography (A-Z)

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Mackie, A.M., 1998. Preliminary studies on the chemical defences of British octocorals Alcyonium digitatum and Pennatula phosphorea. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology A- Physiology, 86, 629-632.

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Mackie, A.S.Y., 1990. Offshore benthic communities of the Irish Sea. In The Irish Sea: an environmental review. Part 1: nature conservation, ed. Irish Sea Study Group, pp. 169-218. Liverpool, Liverpool University Press for Irish Sea Study Group.

Mackie, A.S.Y., James, J.W.C., Rees, E.I.S., Darbyshire, T., Philpott, S.L., Mortimer, K., Jenkins, G.O. & Morando, A., 2006. Biomôr 4. The outer Bristol Channel marine habitat study. , Cardiff: National Museum Wales.

Mackie, A.S.Y., Oliver, P.G. & Rees, E.I.S., 1995. Benthic biodiversity in the southern Irish Sea. Studies in Marine Biodiversity and Systematics from the National Museum of Wales. BIOMOR Reports, no. 1.

Mackie, G. & Bone, Q., 1976. Skin impulses and locomotion in an ascidian tadpole. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 56 (03), 751-768.

Mackie, G.L., 1984. Bivalves. In The Mollusca, vol. 7, Reproduction, (ed. A.S. Tompa, N.H. Verdonk & J.A.M. van den Biggelaar), pp. 351-418. New York: Academic Press Inc.

Mackie, J.A., Keough, M.J. & Christidis, L., 2006. Invasion patterns inferred from cytochrome oxidase I sequences in three bryozoans, Bugula neritina, Watersipora subtorquata, and Watersipora arcuata. Marine Biology, 149, 285-295.

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Macleod, C. K., Moltschaniwskyj, N.A. & Crawford, C.M. (2008). Ecological and functional changes associated with long-term recovery from organic enrichment. Marine Ecology Progress Series 365: 17-24.

Macleod C.K. & Eriksen, R.S., 2009. A review of the ecological impacts of selected antibiotics and antifoulants currently used in the Tasmanian salmonid farming industry (Marine Farming Phase). Fisheries Research and Development Corporation and University of Tasmania, Project, no. 2007/246.

Macleod, C.K., Moltschaniwskyj, N.A. & Crawford, C.M., 2008. Ecological and functional changes associated with long-term recovery from organic enrichment. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 365, 17-24.

Macurda, D.B. & Meyer, D.L., 1974. Feeding Posture of Modern Stalked Crinoids. Nature, 247 (5440), 394. DOI

Madden, B., Jennings, E. & Jeffrey, D.W., 1993. Distribution and ecology of Zostera in Co. Dublin. The Irish Naturalists' Journal, 24, 303-310.

Maddock, A., 2008. UK Biodiversity Action Plan; Priority Habitat Descriptions. UK Biodiversity Action Plan, 94pp

Madlener, J.C., 1977. The sea vegetable book. New York: Clarkson N. Potter.

Madsen, J., 1988. Autumn feeding ecology of herbivorous wildfowl in the Danish Wadden Sea and impact of food supplies and shooting on migration. Danish Review of Game Biology, 13, 1-32.

Madsen, K.N., 1992. Effects of arsenic on survival and metabolism of Crangon crangon. Marine Biology, 113, 37-44.

Madsen, P.B. & Jensen, K., 1987. Population dynamics of Macoma balthica in the Danish Wadden Sea in an organically enriched area. Ophelia, 27, 197-208.

Madsen, T.V. & Maberly, S.C., 1990. A comparison of air and water as environments for photosynthesis by the intertidal alga Fucus spiralis (Phaeophyta). Journal of Phycology, 26 (1), 24-30.

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Maggs, C.A., 1990. Taxonomy of phyllophoroid algae: the implications of life history.  Thirteenth International Seaweed Symposium, Springer,   pp. 119-124.

Maggs, C.A. & Guiry, M.D., 1989. A re-evaluation of the crustose red algal genus Cruoria and the family Cruoriaceae. British Phycological Journal, 24, 253-269

Maggs, C.A. & Guiry, M.D., 1987. Gelidiella calcicola sp. nov. (Rhodophyta) from the British Isles and northern France. British Phycological Journal, 22, 417-434.

Maggs, C.A. & Hommersand, M.H., 1993. Seaweeds of the British Isles: Volume 1 Rhodophycota Part 3A Ceramiales. London: Natural History Museum, Her Majesty's Stationary Office.

Maggs, C.A. & Pueschel, C.M., 1989. Morphology and development of Ahnfeltia plicata (Rhodophyta) : proposal of Ahnfeltiales ord. nov. Journal of Phycology, 25, 333-351.

Maggs, C.A. & Stegenga, H., 1998. Red algal exotics on North Sea coasts. Helgoländer Meeresuntersuchungen, 52 (3), 243-258.

Maggs, C.A., 2005b. Green sea fingers Codium fragile subsp. tomentosoides. Marine Aliens project. [On-line],

Maggs, C.A., 2005a. Wakame Undaria pinnatifida. Marine Aliens pages. [On-line],

Maggs, C.A., Ward, B.A., McIvor, L.M., Evans, C.M., Rueness, J. & Stanhope, M.J., 2002. Molecular analyses elucidate the taxonomy of fully corticated, nonspiny species of Ceramium (Ceramiaceae, Rhodophyta) in the British Isles. Phycologia, 41, 409-420.

Magne, F., 1974. Peuplement d'un substrat calcaire dans la zone intercotidale. Bulletin. Société phycologique de France. Paris, 19, 121-128.

Magnhagen, C. & Forsgren, E., 1991. Behavioural responses to different types of predators by sand goby Pomatoschistus minutus: An experimental study. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 70, 11-16.

Magorrian, B.H. & Service, M., 1998. Analysis of underwater visual data to identify the impact of physical disturbance on horse mussel (Modiolus modiolus) beds. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 36, 354-359.

Magorrian, B.H., Service, M., & Clarke, W., 1995. An acoustic bottom classification of Strangford Lough, Northern Ireland. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 75, 987-992.

Mahoney, J.B. & Steimle, F.W. Jr., 1979. A mass mortality of marine animals associated with a bloom of Ceratium tripos in the New York Bight. In: Proceedings of the second International Conference on Toxic Dinoflagellate Blooms, Key Biscayne, Florida, October 31 - November 5, 1978. Toxic Dinoflagellate Blooms (ed. D.L. Taylor & H.H. Seliger), pp. 225-230. New York: Elsevier/North-Holland.

Mai, K.S., Mercer, J.P. & Donlon, J., 1996. Comparative studies of on the nutrition of 2 species of Abalone, Haliotis tuberculata and Haliotis discus Hanni-Ino. 5. The role of poly-unsaturated fatty acids in macroalgae in Abalone nutrition. Aquaculture, 139, 77-89.

Maier, C., 2008. High recovery potential of the cold-water coral Lophelia pertusa. Coral Reefs, 27 (4), 821-821.

Maier, C., Bils, F., Weinbauer, M.G., Watremez, P., Peck, M.A. & Gattuso, J.P., 2013a. Respiration of Mediterranean cold-water corals is not affected by ocean acidification as projected for the end of the century. Biogeosciences, 10 (8), 5671-5680. DOI

Maier, C., Hegeman, J., Weinbauer, M.G. & Gattuso, J.P., 2009. Calcification of the cold-water coral Lophelia pertusa, under ambient and reduced pH. Biogeosciences, 6 (8), 1671-1680. DOI

Maier, C., Popp, P., Sollfrank, N., Weinbauer, M.G., Wild, C. & Gattuso, J.-P., 2016. Effects of elevated CO2 and feeding on net calcification and energy budget of the Mediterranean cold-water coral Madrepora oculata. The Journal of Experimental Biology, 219 (20), 3208-3217. DOI

Maier, C., Schubert, A., Sànchez, M.M.B., Weinbauer, M.G., Watremez, P. & Gattuso, J.-P., 2013b. End of the Century pCO2 Levels Do Not Impact Calcification in Mediterranean Cold-Water Corals. PLOS ONE, 8 (4), e62655. DOI

Main, K., 1982. The early development of two ovalid snails, Simnia aequalis and Simnia barbarensis. The Veliger, 24, 252-258.

Mainwaring, K., Tillin, H. & Tyler-Walters, H., 2014. Assessing the sensitivity of blue mussel beds to pressures associated with human activities. Joint Nature Conservation Committee, JNCC Report No. 506., Peterborough, 96 pp. Available from: or

Mair, J.M., Moore, C.G., Kingston, P.F. & Harries, D.B. , 2000. A review of the status, ecology and conservation of horse mussel Modiouls modiolus beds in Scotland. Scottish Natural Heritage Commissioned Report.   F99PA08.

Majeed, S.A., 1987. Organic-matter and biotic indexes on the beaches of North Brittany. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 18, 490-495.

Major, W.W., III, Grue, C.E., Grassley, J.M. & Conquest, L.L., 2004. Non-target impacts to eelgrass from treatments to control Spartina in Willapa Bay, Washington. Journal of Aquatic Plant Management, 42 (1), 11-17.

Makings, P., 1977. A guide to the British coastal Mysidacea. Field Studies, 4, 575-595.

Makra, A. &  Keegan, B. F. (1999). Arm regeneration in Acrocnida brachiata (Ophiuroidea) at Little Killary, west coast of Ireland. Biology and Environment: Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy, 99 (2) 95-102.

Malecha, P. & Heifetz, J., 2017. Long-term effects of bottom trawling on large sponges in the Gulf of Alaska. Continental Shelf Research, 150, 18-26. DOI

Malecha, P.W. & Stone, R.P., 2009. Response of the sea whip Halipteris willemoesi to simulated trawl disturbance and its vulnerability to subsequent predation. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 388, 197-206.

Mallol, S., Díaz, D., Sobrado, F. & Goñi, R., 2014. First V-Notching Experience of a Spiny Lobster: V-Notch Recovery and Impact on Health and Growth of Palinurus elephas. Journal of Crustacean Biology, 34, 25-30.

Malm, T., 1999. Distribution patterns and ecology of Fucus serratus L. and Fucus vesiculosus L. in the Baltic Sea. PhD thesis,  Stockholm University.

Malm, T. & Kautsky, L., 2003. Differences in life-history characteristics are consistent with the vertical distribution pattern of Fucus serratus and Fucus vesiculosus (Fucales, Phaeophyceae) in the central Baltic Sea. Journal of Phycology, 39 (5), 880-887.

Malm, T., Kautsky, L. & Engkvist, R., 2001. Reproduction, recruitment and geographical distribution of Fucus serratus L. in the Baltic Sea. Botanica Marina, 44 (2), 101-108.

Mancusi, C., Clo, S., Affronte, M., Bradai, M.N., Hemida, F., Serena, F., Soldo, A. & Vacchi, M., 2005. On the presence of basking shark (Cetorhinus maximus) in the Mediterranean Sea. Cybium, 29 (4), 399-405.

Mancuso, M., Costanzo, M.T., Maricchiolo, G., Gristina, M., Zaccone, R., Cuccu, D. & Genovese, L., 2010. Characterization of chitinolytic bacteria and histological aspects of Shell Disease Syndrome in European spiny lobsters (Palinurus elephas) (Fabricius 1787). Journal of Invertebrate Pathology, 104, 242-244.

Mangano, M., Kaiser, M., Porporato, E. & Spanò, N., 2013. Evidence of trawl disturbance on mega-epibenthic communities in the Southern Tyrrhenian Sea. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 475, 101-117. DOI

Mangialajo, L., Chiantore, M. & Cattaneo-Vietti, R., 2008. Loss of fucoid algae along a gradient of urbanisation, and structure of benthic assemblages. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 358, 63.

Mangold, K., 1966. Sepia officinalis de la Mer Catalane. Vie et Milieu, 17, 961-1012.

Mangum, C. & Van Winkle, W., 1973. Responses of aquatic invertebrates to declining oxygen conditions. American Zoologist, 13 (2), 529-541.

Mangum, C. & Van Winkle, W., 1973. Responses of aquatic invertebrates to declining oxygen conditions. American Zoologist, 13 (2), 529-541.

Manjon-Cabeza, M.E. & Garcia-Raso, J.E., 1998. Population structure and growth of the hermit crab Diogenes pugilator (Decapoda: Anomura: Diogenidae) from the northeastern Atlantic. Journal of Crustacean Biology, 18, 753-762

Manley, S.R., Orth, R.J. & Ruiz-Montoya, L., 2015. Roles of dispersal and predation in determining seedling recruitment patterns in a foundational marine angiosperm. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 533, 109-120. DOI

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Mann, K.H., 1982. Kelp, sea urchins, and predators: a review of strong interactions in rocky subtidal systems of eastern Canada, 1970-1980. Netherlands Journal of Sea Research, 16, 414-423.

Mann, R. & Harding, J.M., 2000. Invasion of the North American Atlantic coast by a large predatory Asian mollusc. Biological Invasions, 2 (1), 7-22.

Mann, R. & Harding, J.M., 2003. Salinity tolerance of larval Rapana venosa: implications for dispersal and establishment of an invading predatory gastropod on the North American Atlantic coast. The Biological Bulletin, 204 (1), 96-103.

Mann, R. & Wolf C., 1983. Swimming behaviour of larvae of the Ocean Quahog Arctica islandica in response to pressure and temperature. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 13, 211 -218.

Mann, R., 1979. The effect of temperature on growth, physiology, and gametogenesis in the Manila clam Tapes philippinarum (Adams & Reeves, 1850), Journal of Eperimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 38, 121-133.

Mann, R., Harding, J.M. & Powell, E.N., 2005. Recruitment patterns of the ocean quahog, Arctica islandica, in the Mid Atlantic Bight as illustrated by sized and age structure. Journal of Shellfish Research, 24 (2), 665.

Mann, R., Harding, J.M. & Westcott, E., 2006. Occurrence of imposex and seasonal patterns of gametogenesis in the invading veined rapa whelk Rapana venosa from Chesapeake Bay, USA. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 310, 129-138.

Mann, R., Occhipinti, A. & Harding, M. (eds.), 2004. Alien Species Alert: Rapana Venosa (veined whelk). ICES Cooperative Research Report, 264, 14 pp.

Manning, A.J., Langston, W.J. & Jonas, P.J.C., 2010. A review of sediment dynamics in the Severn Estuary: Influence of flocculation. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 61 (1), 37-51. DOI

Manning, L.M., Peterson, C.H. & Bishop, M.J., 2014. Dominant macrobenthic populations experience sustained impacts from annual disposal of fine sediments on sandy beaches. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 508, 1-15.

Mansueto, C., Gianguzza, M., Dolcemascolo, G. & Pellerito, L., 1993. Effects of Tributyltin (IV) chloride exposure on early embryonic stages of Ciona intestinalis: in vivo and ultrastructural investigations. Applied Organometallic Chemistry, 7, 391-399.

Mant, R.C., Moggridge, G.D. & Aldridge, D.C., 2012. Control of biofouling by Cordylophora caspia in freshwater using one-off, pulsed and intermittent dosing of chlorine: laboratory evaluation. Biofouling, 28 (5), 433-440.

Manuel, R.L., 1981. British Anthozoa. London: Academic Press.[Synopses of the British Fauna, no. 18.]

Manuel, R.L., 1975. A new sea anemone from a brackish lagoon in Sussex, Edwardsia ivelli, sp. Nov. Journal of Natural History, 9, 705-711.

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Manuel, R.L., 1983. The Anthozoa of the British Isles - a colour guide, 2nd edn. Ross-on-Wye: Marine Conservation Society.

Manx Biological Recording Partnership, 2018. Isle of Man historical wildlife records 1990 to 1994. Occurrence dataset: accessed via on 2018-10-01.

Manx Biological Recording Partnership, 2018. Isle of Man historical wildlife records 1990 to 1994. Occurrence dataset: accessed via on 2018-10-01.

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Marasigan, E.T. & Laureta, L.V. 2001. Broodstock maintenance and early gonadal maturation of Pholas orientalis (Bivalvia: Pholididae). Journal of Shellfish Research, 20, 1095-1099

Marba, N. & Duarte, C.M., 2010. Mediterranean warming triggers seagrass (Posidonia oceanica) shoot mortality. Global Change Biology16 (8), 2366-2375. DOI

Marbà, N. Duarte, C.M. Alexandre, A. & Cabaço, S. 2004. How do seagrasses grow and spread? The M&MS Project

Marchan, S., Davies, M.S., Fleming, S. & Jones, H.D., 1999. Effects of copper and zinc on the heart rate of the limpet Patella vulgata (L.) Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology, 123A, 89-93.

Marchetti, R., 1992. The problems of the Emalia Romagna coastal waters: facts and interpretations. Science of the Total Environment, Supplement 1992, 21-33.

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Margolis, L., 1971. Polychaetes as Intermediate Hosts of Helminth Parasites of Vertebrates: A Review. Journal of the Fisheries Research Board of Canada, 28 (10), 1385-1392.

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Mariani, S., Uriz, M.J. & Turon, X., 2003. Methodological bias in the estimations of important meroplanktonic components from near-shore bottoms. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 253, 67-75. DOI

Marin, A., Lopez, M., Esteban, M., Meseguer, J., Munoz, J. & Fontana, A., 1998. Anatomical and ultrastructural studies of chemical defence in the sponge Dysidea fragilis. Marine Biology, 131 (4), 639-645.

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Moore, K.A. & Wetzel, R.L., 2000. Seasonal variations in eelgrass (Zostera marina L.) responses to nutrient enrichment and reduced light availability in experimental ecosystems Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 244, 1-28

Moore, K.A., Shields, E.C. & Parrish, D.B., 2014. Impacts of varying estuarine temperature and light conditions on Zostera marina (eelgrass) and its interactions with Ruppia maritima (widgeongrass). Estuaries and coasts, 37 (1), 20-30.

Moore, M.N.,Livingstone D.R., Widdows J., Lowe, D.M. & Pipe, R.K., 1987. Molecular, cellular and physiological effects of oil derived hydrocarbons on molluscs and their use in impact assessment. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, 316. 603 - 623.

Moore, P.G. & Cameron, K.S., 1999. A note on a hitherto unreported association between Photis longicaudata (Crustacea: Amphipoda) and Cerianthus lloydii (Anthozoa: Hexacorallia). Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 79, 369-370.

Moore, P.G. & Seed, R. (ed.), 1985. The Ecology of Rocky Coasts. London: Hodder and Stoughton Publ.

Moore, P.G., 1973b. The kelp fauna of north east Britain. II. Multivariate classification: turbidity as an ecological factor. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 13, 127-163.

Moore, P.G., 1977c. Additions to the littoral fauna of Rockall, with a description of Araeolaimus penelope sp. nov. (Nematoda: Axonolaimidae). Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 57, 191-200.

Moore, P.G., 1977a. Inorganic particulate suspensions in the sea and their effects on marine animals. Oceanography and Marine Biology: An Annual Review, 15, 225-363.

Moore, P.G., 1973c. Bryozoa as a community component on the northeast coast of Britain. In Living and fossil Bryozoa. Recent advances in research (ed. G.P. Larwood), pp. 21-36.

Moore, P.G., 1973a. The kelp fauna of north east Britain I. Function of the physical environment. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 13, 97-125.

Moore, P.G., 1983. Biological Interactions. In Sublittoral ecology. The ecology of shallow sublittoral benthos (ed. R. Earll & D.G. Erwin), pp. 58-96.

Moore, P.G., 1985. Levels of heterogeneity and the amphipod fauna of kelp holdfasts. In The Ecology of Rocky Coasts: essays presented to J.R. Lewis, D.Sc. (ed. P.G. Moore & R. Seed), 274-289. London: Hodder & Stoughton Ltd.

Moore, P.G., 1986. Seaweed-associated animal communities in the Firth of Clyde, with special reference to the population biology of the amphipod Hyale nilssoni (Rathke). Proceedings of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, 90B, 271-286.

Moore, P.G., 1977b. Organisation in simple communities: observations on the natural history of Hyale nilssoni (Amphipoda) in high littoral seaweeds. In Biology of Benthic Organisms, 11th European Symposium on Marine Biology, Galway, 5 Oct 1976, (ed.: Keegan, B.F., Ceidigh, P.O. and Boaden, P.J.S.), 443-451.

Moore, P.G., 1983. The apparent role of temperature in breeding initiation and winter population structure in Hyale nilssoni Rathke (Amphipoda): field observations 1972-83. Journal of Marine Biology and Ecology, 71, 237-248.

Moore, P.G., 1978. Turbidity and kelp holdfast Amphipoda. I. Wales and S.W. England. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 32, 53-96.

Moore, P.G., 1971. A study of pollution in certain marine ecosystems. , PhD thesis, University of Leeds, Leeds.

Morais, P., Borges, T.C., Carnall, V., Terrinha, P., Cooper, C. & Cooper, R., 2007. Trawl-induced bottom disturbances off the south coast of Portugal: direct observations by the ‘Delta’manned-submersible on the Submarine Canyon of Portimão. Marine Ecology, 28 (s1), 112-122. DOI

Morales-Alamo, R. & Mann, R. 1990. Recruitment and growth of oysters on shell planted at four monthly intervals in the lower Potomac River, Maryland. Journal of Shellfish Research, 9, 165-172.

Moran, P.J. & Grant, T.R., 1993. Larval settlement of marine fouling organisms in polluted water from Port Kembla Harbour, Australia. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 26, 512-514.

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Morgan, E., 1970. The effect of environmental factors on the distribution of the amphipod Pectenogammarus planicrurus, with particular reference to grain size. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 50, 769-785.

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Morgan, K.C. & Simpson, F.J., 1981. The cultivation of Palmaria palmata: effect of light intensity and temperature on growth and chemical composition. Botanica Marina, 24, 547-552.

Morgan, K.C., Shacklock, P.F. & Simpson, F.J., 1980. Some aspects of the culture of Palmaria palmata in greenhouse tanks. Botanica Marina, 23, 765-770.

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Morgan, P.R., 1972. Nucella lapillus (L.) as a predator of edible cockles. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 8, 45-52.

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Mori, M., 1987. Observations on reproductive biology, and diet of Macropipus tuberculatus (Roux) of the Ligurian Sea. Investigacion Pesquera, 51, 147-152.

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Morton, B., 1992. The evolution and success of the heteromyarian form in the Mytiloida. In The mussel Mytilus: Ecology, physiology, genetics and culture, (ed. E.M. Gosling), pp. 21-52. Amsterdam: Elsevier Science Publ. [Developments in Aquaculture and Fisheries Science, 25]

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Morton, J.W., 1976. Ecological impacts of dredging and dredge spoil disposal: A literature review. M. S. thesis, Cornell University, Ithaca, N. Y.. 

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Moss, B., 1969. Apical meristems and growth control in Himanthalia elongata (SF Gray). New Phytologist68 (2), 387-397.

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