information on the biology of species and the ecology of habitats found around the coasts and seas of the British Isles

Bibliography (A-Z)

U.K. BAP, accessed 2009. Species Action Plan: Native Oyster (Ostrea edulis) ,

U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 2000. Trade in seahorses and other members of the family Syngnathidae. [On-line], 2004-02-23

Ugarte, R., Sharp, G. & Moore, B., 2006. Changes in the brown seaweed Ascophyllum nodosum (L.) Le Jolis. plant morphology and biomass produced by cutter rake harvests in souther New Brunswick, Canada. Journal of applied Phycology, 18, 351-359.

Uglem, I., Bjørn, P.A., Dale, T., Kerwath, S., Økland, F., Nilsen, R., Aas, K., Fleming, I. & McKinley, R.S., 2008. Movements and spatiotemporal distribution of escaped farmed and local wild Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua L.). Aquaculture Research, 39(2), 158 - 170.

Ugolini, A. & Scapini, F., 1988. Orientation of the sand hopper Talitrus saltator (Amphipoda, Talitridae) living on dynamic sandy shores. Journal of Comparative Physiology, 162, 453-462.

Ugolini, A., Cincinelli, A., Martellini, T. & Doumett, S., 2015. Salt concentration and solar orientation in two supralittoral sandhoppers: Talitrus saltator (Montagu) and Talorchestia ugolinii Bellan Santini and Ruffo. Journal of Comparative Physiology a-Neuroethology Sensory Neural and Behavioral Physiology, 201 (5), 455-460.

Ugolini, A., Pasquali, V., Baroni, D. & Ungherese, G., 2012. Behavioural responses of the supralittoral amphipod Talitrus saltator (Montagu) to trace metals contamination. Ecotoxicology, 21 (1), 139-147.

Ugolini, A., Ungherese, G., Ciofini, M., Lapucci, A. & Camaiti, M., 2013. Microplastic debris in sandhoppers. Estuarine Coastal and Shelf Science, 129, 19-22.

Ugolini, A., Ungherese, G., Somigli, S., Galanti, G., Baroni, D., Borghini, F., Cipriani, N., Nebbiai, M., Passaponti, M. & Focardi, S., 2008. The amphipod Talitrus saltator as a bioindicator of human trampling on sandy beaches. Marine Environmental Research, 65 (4), 349-357.

UK Biodiversity Group, 1999. UK Biodiversity Group Tranche 2 Action Plans - vol. V: maritime species and habitats. Peterborough: English Nature.

UK BAP, 2008., UK Biodiversity Action Plan; Priority Habitat Descriptions. Report by UK Biodiversity Reporting and Information Group (BRIG) (ed. Ant Maddock) Updated, 2010.

UKNEA (UK National Ecosystem Assessment), 2011. The UK National Ecosystem Assessment: Synthesis of the Key Findings. UNEP-WCMC, Cambridge, pp.

UKTAG, 2014. UK Technical Advisory Group on the Water Framework Directive [online]. Available from:

Umar, M., McCook, L. & Price, I., 1998. Effects of sediment deposition on the seaweed Sargassum on a fringing coral reef. Coral Reefs, 17 (2), 169-177.

UMBS 2007. Conservation of the native oyster Ostrea edulis in Scotland. Scottish Natural Heritage Commissioned Report, No. 251 (ROAME No. F02AA408). 186 pp.

Uncles, R.J., Lavender, S.J. & Stephens, J.A., 2001. Remotely sensed observations of the turbidity maximum in the highly turbid Humber estuary, UK. Estuaries, 24, 745-755.

Uncles, R.J., Stephens, J.A. & Law, D.J., 2006. Turbidity maximum in the macrotidal, highly turbid Humber Estuary, UK: Flocs, fluid mud, stationary suspensions and tidal bores. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 67 (1–2), 30-52.

Underdal, B., Skulberg, O.M., Dahl, E. & Aune, T., 1989. Disastrous bloom of Chrysochromulina polylepis (Pymnesiophycaea) in Norwegian Coastal Waters 1988 - mortality in marine biota. Ambio,18, 265-270.

Underwood, A.J., 2006. Why overgrowth of intertidal encrusting algae does not always cause competitive exclusion. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 330 (2), 448-454.

Underwood, A.J. & Jernakoff, P., 1981. Interactions between algae and grazing gastropods in the structure of a low-shore algal community. Oecologia, 48, 221-233.

Underwood, A.J., 1972. Observations on the reproductive cycles of Monodonta lineata, Gibbula umbilicalis and G. cineraria. Marine Biology, 17, 333-340.

Underwood, A.J., 1979. The ecology of marine gastropods. Advances in Marine Biology, 16, 111-210.

Underwood, A.J., 1980. The effects of grazing by gastropods and physical factors on the upper limits of distribution of intertidal macroalgae. Oecologia, 46, 210-213.

Ungfors, A., Bell, E., Johnson, M.L., Cowing, D., Dobson, N.C., Bublitz, R. & Sandell, J., 2013. Nephrops Fisheries in European Waters. In Johnson, M.L. and Johnson, M.P. (eds.). The Ecology and Biology of Nephrops norvegicus. Advances in Marine Biology, vol. 64, Academic Press, pp. 247-314.

Urban-Malinga, B., Warzocha, J. & Zalewski, M., 2013. Effects of the invasive polychaete Marenzelleria spp. on benthic processes and meiobenthos of a species-poor brackish system. Journal of Sea Research, 80, 25-34.

Uribe, E. & Etchepare, I., 1999. Effects of biofouling by Ciona intestinalis on suspended culture of Argopecten purpuratus in Bahia Inglesa, Chile. In Book of Abstracts from the 12th International Pectinid Workshop, 1999.

Uriz, M., Rosell, D. & Maldenado, M., 1992. Parasitism, commensalism or mutualism? The case of Scyphozoa (Coronatae) and horny sponges. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 81, 247-255.

Urk van, R.M., 1987. Ensis americanus (Binney)(syn. E. directus auct. non Conrad): a recent introduction from Atlantic North America. Journal of Conchology, 32, 329-333.

Ursin, E., 1960. A quantitative investigation of the echinoderm fauna of the central North Sea. Meddelelser fra Danmark Fiskeri-og-Havundersogelser, 2 (24), pp. 204.

US Fisheries & Wildlife Service, 2005. Hawksbill Sea Turtle (Eretmochelys imbricata). [On-line].,

Utne-Palm, A.C., 2002. Visual feeding of fish in a turbid environment: Physical and behavioural aspects. Marine and Freshwater Behaviour and Physiology, 35(1-2), 111 - 128