information on the biology of species and the ecology of habitats found around the coasts and seas of the British Isles

Bibliography (A-Z)

Wagler, H., Berghahn, R. & Vorberg, R., 2009. The fishery for whiteweed, Sertularia cupressina (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa), in the Wadden Sea, Germany: history and anthropogenic effects. ICES Journal of Marine Science: Journal du Conseil, fsp201.

Wagler, H., Berghahn, R. & Vorberg, R., 2009. The fishery for whiteweed, Sertularia cupressina (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa), in the Wadden Sea, Germany: history and anthropogenic effects. ICES Journal of Marine Science, 66 (10), 2116-2120.

Wagner, D., Waller, R.G. & Toonen, R.J., 2011. Sexual reproduction of Hawaiian black corals, with a review of the reproduction of antipatharians (Cnidaria: Anthozoa: Hexacorallia): Reproduction of Hawaiian black corals. Invertebrate Biology, 130 (3), 211-225. DOI

Wagner, D., Waller, R.G., Montgomery, A.D., Kelley, C.D. & Toonen, R.J., 2012. Sexual reproduction of the Hawaiian black coral Antipathes griggi (Cnidaria: Antipatharia). Coral Reefs, 31 (3), 795-806. DOI

Wahl, M., 1984. The fluffy sea anemone Metridium senile in periodically oxygen depleted surroundings. Marine Biology, 81, 81-86.

Wahl, M., 1985. The recolonization potential of Metridium senile in an area previously depopulated by oxygen deficiency. Oecologia, 67, 255-259.

Wahl, M., Goecke, F.R., Labes, A., Dobretsov, S. & Weinberger, F., 2012. The second skin: ecological role of epibiotic biofilms on marine organisms. Frontiers in Microbiology, 3, 292.

Wahl, M., Jormalainen, V., Eriksson, B.K., Coyer, J.A., Molis, M., Schubert, H., Dethier, M., Karez, R., Kruse, I., Lenz, M., Pearson, G., Rohde, S., Wikström, S.A. & Olsen, J.L., 2011. Chapter Two - Stress Ecology in Fucus: Abiotic, Biotic and Genetic Interactions. In Lesser, M. (ed.) Advances in Marine Biology. 59, 37-105.

Wahl, M., Shahnaz, L., Dobretsov, S., Saha, M., Symanowski, F., David, K., Lachnit, T., Vasel, M. & Weinberger, F., 2010. Ecology of antifouling resistance in the bladder wrack Fucus vesiculosus: patterns of microfouling and antimicrobial protection. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 411, 33-48.

Wahsha, M., Al-Absi, E., Bini, C., Yassen, A. B., Al-Zyoud, W. & Al-Jawasreh, R., 2016. Effects of toxic elements on leaf morphology of Halophila stipulacea grown in mine dump sediments In Southeast Jordan. Eqa-International Journal of Environmental Quality, 21, 33-40. DOI

Wainright, S.C., Weinstein, M.P., Able, K.W. & Currin, C.A., 2000. Relative importance of benthic microalgae, phytoplankton and the detritus of smooth cordgrass Spartina alterniflora and the common reed Phragmites australis to brackish-marsh food webs. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 200, 77-91.

Waldbusser, G.G., Hales, B., Langdon, C.J., Haley, B.A., Schrader, P., Brunner, E.L., Gray, M.W., Miller, C.A. & Gimenez, I., 2015. Saturation-state sensitivity of marine bivalve larvae to ocean acidification. Nature Climate Change, 5 (3), 273-280. DOI

Waldock, M.J. & Miller, D., 1983. The determination of total and tributyl tin in seawater and oysters in areas of high pleasure craft activity. International Council for the Exploration of the Sea, CM Papers and Reports, CM 1983/E:12, 16pp.

Waldock, M.J. & Thain, J.E., 1983. Shell thickening in Crassostrea gigas: organotin antifouling or sediment induced? Marine Pollution Bulletin, 14, 411-415.

Waldock, R., Rees, H.L., Matthiessen, P. & Pendle, M.A., 1999. Surveys of the benthic infauna of the Crouch Estuary (UK) in relation to TBT contamination. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 79, 225 - 232.

Walker, A.J.M. & Rees, E.I.S., 1980. Benthic ecology of Dublin Bay in relation to sludge dumping: fauna. Irish Fisheries Investigation Series B (Marine), 22, 1-59.

Walker, D., Lukatelich, R., Bastyan, G. & McComb, A., 1989. Effect of boat moorings on seagrass beds near Perth, Western Australia. Aquatic Botany, 36 (1), 69-77.

Walker, F. T., 1953. Distribution of Laminariaceae around Scotland. Journal du Conseil, 20 (2), 160-166.

Walker, G., 1995. Larval settlement: Historical and future perspectives. In New Frontiers in Barnacle Evolution, (ed. F.R. Schram & J.T. Hoeg). Rotterdam: A.A. Balkema. [Crustacean Issues 10]

Walker, P., Howlett, G., & Millner, R., 1997. Distribution, movement and stock structure of three ray species in the North Sea and eastern English Channel.

Walker, P.A. & Hislop, J.R.G., 1998. Sensitive skates or resilient rays? Spatial and temporal shifts in ray species composition in the central north-western North Sea between 1930 and the present day. ICES Journal of Marine Science, 55, 392-402.

Wall, C.C., Peterson, B.J. & Gobler, C.J., 2008. Facilitation of seagrass Zostera marina productivity by suspension-feeding bivalves. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 357, 165-174.

Wall, M., Ragazzola, F., Foster, L.C., Form, A. & Schmidt, D.N., 2015. pH up-regulation as a potential mechanism for the cold-water coral Lophelia pertusa to sustain growth in aragonite undersaturated conditions. Biogeosciences, 12 (23), 6869-6880. DOI

Wallace, B. & Wallace, I.D., 1983. The white piddock Barnea candida (L.) found alive on Merseyside. The Conchologists Newsletter, 84, 71-72.

Wallentinus, I., 1978. Productivity studies on Baltic macroalgae. Botanica Marina, 21, 365-380.

Waller, G. (ed), 1996. Sealife. A Complete Guide to the Marine Environment. Sussex: Pica Press

Waller, R. G., Scanlon, K. M. & Robinson, L. F., 2011. Cold-Water Coral Distributions in the Drake Passage Area from Towed Camera Observations – Initial Interpretations. PLOS ONE, 6 (1), e16153. DOI

Waller, R.G. & Tyler, P.A., 2005. The reproductive biology of two deep-water, reef-building scleractinians from the NE Atlantic Ocean. Coral Reefs, 24 (3), 514. DOI

Waller, R.G., 2005. Deep-water Scleractinia (Cnidaria: Anthozoa): current knowledge of reproductive processes. Cold-Water Corals and Ecosystems: Springer, pp. 691-700.

Waller, Rhian G., Tyler, Paul A. & Gage, John D., 2005. Sexual reproduction in three hermaphroditic deep-sea Caryophyllia species (Anthozoa: Scleractinia) from the NE Atlantic Ocean. Coral Reefs, 24 (4), 594. DOI

Waller, T.R., 1981. Functional morphology and development of veliger larvae of the European oyster, Ostrea edulis, Linnaeus. Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology, 328, 70.

Waller, U. & Rosenthal, H., 1995. The migratory behaviour of yolk-sack larvae of cod, Gadus morhua. ICES Council Meeting Papers, C.M.1995/L:14, 4p.

Walne P., 1974. Culture of Bivalve Molluscs: 50 years’ experience at Conwy. Oxford: Fishing News Books Ltd (No. Ed. 2).

Walne, P., 1964. Observations on the fertility of the oyster (Ostrea edulis). Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 44 (02), 293-310.

Walne, P.R., 1979. Culture of Bivalve Molluscs: 50 years experience at Conwy. London and Tonbridge: Whitefriars Press.

Walsh, G.E., McLaughlin, L.L., Louie, M.K., Deans, C.H. & Lores, E.M., 1986. Inhibition of arm regeneration by Ophioderma brevispina (Echinodermata: Ophiuroidea) by tributyltin oxide and triphenyltin oxide. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 12, 95-100.

Walsh, P. & Somero, G., 1981. Temperature adaptation in sea anemones: physiological and biochemical variability in geographically separate populations of Metridium senile. Marine Biology, 62 (1), 25-34.

Walter, U. & Becker, P.H., 1997. Occurrence and consumption of seabirds scavenging on shrimp trawler discards in the Wadden Sea. Seabirds in the Marine Environment. Proceedings of an ICES International Symposium held in Glasgow, Scotland, 22-24 November 1996, 54, 684-694.

Walters, C., 1997. Challenges in adaptive management of riparian and coastal ecosystems. Conservation ecology, 1 (2), 1.

Walton, W.C., MacKinnon, C., Rodriguez, L.F., Proctor, C. & Ruiz, G.M., 2002. Effect of an invasive crab upon a marine fishery: green crab, Carcinus maenas, predation upon a venerid clam, Katelysia scalarina, in Tasmania (Australia). Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 272, 171-189.

Wang, C. B., Li, Q., Xu, C. X. & Yu, R. H., 2017. Seasonal changes of reproductive activity and biochemical composition of pen shell Atrina pectinata Linnaeus, 1767 in Bohai Sea, China. Journal of Ocean University of China, 16 (3), 479-489. DOI

Wang, G., Shuai, L., Li, Y., Lin, W., Zhao, X. & Duan, D., 2008. Phylogenetic analysis of epiphytic marine bacteria on Hole-Rotten diseased sporophytes of Laminaria japonica. Journal of applied phycology, 20 (4), 403-409.

Wang, H.M.D., Chen, C.C., Huynh, P. & Chang, J.S., 2015. Exploring the potential of using algae in cosmetics. Bioresource Technology184, 355-362.

Wang, M., Wang, Y., Guo, X., Sha, J., Zhang, H., Tang, X. & Zhou, B., 2016. Reproductive properties of Zostera marina and effects of sediment type and burial depth on seed germination and seedling establishment. Aquatic Botany, 134, 68-74. DOI

Wang, M., Zhang, H. X. & Tang, X. X., 2019. Growth characteristics of a restored Zostera marina population in the Shandong Peninsula, China: A case study. Journal of Sea Research, 144, 122-132. DOI

Wang, W. & Widdows, J., 1991. Physiological responses of mussel larvae Mytilus edulis to environmental hypoxia and anoxia. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 70, 223-36

Wang, Wen-Xiong, Stupakoff, I. & Fisher, N.S., 1999. Bioavailability of dissolved and sediment-bound metals to a deposit-feeding polychaete. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 178, 281-293.

Wang, X., Broch, O.J., Forbord, S., Handa, A., Skjermo, J., Reitan, K.I., Vadstein, O. & Olsen, Y., 2014. Assimilation of inorganic nutrients from salmon (Salmo salar) farming by the macroalgae (Saccharina latissima) in an exposed coastal environment: implications for integrated multi-trophic aquaculture. Journal of Applied Phycology, 26 (4), 1869-1878.

Wang Y., Sheng, H.F., He, Y., Wu, J.Y., Jiang, Y.X., Tam, N.F. & Zhou, H.W., 2012. Comparison of the levels of bacterial diversity in freshwater, intertidal wetland, and marine sediments by using millions of illumina tags. Applied Environmental Microbiology, 78 (23), 8264-71.  

Wänke, A., 2018. Ca2+, Mg2+ and urate: Hemocyanin modulators of the European spiny lobster (Palinurus elephas). Characterisation of their binding to hemocyanin and their effects on hemocyanin's oxygen binding. Ph.D Thesis, Heinrich Heine University Düsseldorf. Available from:

Wanson, S., Pequeux, A. & Giles, R., 1983. Osmoregulation in the stone crab Cancer pagurus. Marine Biology Letters, 4, 321-330.

Wapstra, M. & van Soest, R.W.M., 1987. Sexual reproduction, larval morphology and behaviour in demosponges from the southwest of the Netherlands. Berlin: Springer-Verlag.

Warburton, F.E., 1966. The behavior of sponge larvae. Ecological Society of America, 47 (4), 672-674.

Warburton, K., 1976. Shell form, behaviour and tolerance to water movement in the limpet Patina pellucida (L.) (Gastropoda: Prosobranchia). Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 23, 307-325

Warburton, K., 1982. Sandeels - the elusive species. Scottish Fisheries Bulletin, 47, 22-26.

Ward, D. (ed.), 1992. Reedbeds for Wildlife. Sandy, Bedfordshire: Royal Society for the Protection of Birds and the University of Bristol.

Ward, J., Fietje, L., Freeman, M., Hawes, I., Smith, V. & Taylor, K., 1996. Water quality of the lake and tributaries In: Taylor KJW (ed) The natural resources of Lake Ellesmere (Te Waihora) and its catchment. Christchurch, 105–143 pp. 

Ward, J.E. & Shumway, S.E., 2004. Separating the grain from the chaff: particle selection in suspension-and deposit-feeding bivalves. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 300 (1), 83-130.

Ward, T. J., 1984. Role of acute metal toxicity in structuring seagrass fauna near a lead smelter. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 17 (2), 117-124. DOI

Ward, T. J., 1987. Temporal variation of metals in the seagrass Posidonia australis and its potential as a sentinel accumulator near a lead smelter​​​​​​. Marine Biology, 95 (2), 315-321. DOI

Ward, T.J. & Hutchings, P.A., 1996. Effects of trace metals on infaunal species composition in polluted intertidal and subtidal marine sediments near a lead smelter, Spencer Gulf, South Australia. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 135, 123-135.

Ward, T.J. & Young, P.C., 1982. Effects of sediment trace metals and particle size on the community structure of epibenthic seagrass fauna near a lead smelter, South Australia. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 9, 136-146.

Ward, T.J., & Young, P.C., 1983. The depauperation of epifauna on Pinna bicolor near of lead smelter, Spencer Gulf, South Australia. Environmental Pollution Series A, Ecological and Biological, 30 (4), 293-308. DOI

Ward-Paige, C.A., Risk, M.J., Sherwood, O.A. & Jaap, W.C., 2005. Clionid sponge surveys on the Florida Reef Tract suggest land-based nutrient inputs. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 51 (5), 570-579.

Ward. P. D., Boletzky. S. v., 1984. Shell implosion depth and implosion morphologies in three species of Sepia (Cephalopoda) from the Mediterranean Sea. Journal of the Marine Biological Association64, 955-966.

Ware, F.J. & Hartnoll, R.G., 1996. Desiccation of the barnacle Semibalanus balanoides (L.) in relation to shore height (Cirripedia. Thoracica). Crustaceana, 69, 321-329.

Ware, J.R., Smith, S.V. & Reaka-Kudla, M.L., 1992. Coral reefs: sources or sinks of atmospheric CO2? Coral Reefs, 11, 127-130.

Wareham, V.E., 2009. Updated on deep-sea coral distributions in the Newfoundland Labrador and Arctic regions, Northwest Atlantic. In Gilkinson, K. and Edinger, E. (eds). The ecology of deep-sea corals of Newfoundland and Labrador waters: biogeography, life history, biogeochemistry, and relation to fishes. Dartmouth, Nova Scotia: Fisheries and Oceans Canada, pp. 4-21. Available from:

Wareham, V.E. & Edinger, E.N., 2007. Distribution of deep-sea corals in the Newfoundland and Labrador region, Northwest Atlantic Ocean. Bulletin of Marine Science, 81 (3), 289-313.

Waren, A., 1989. New and little known Mollusca from Iceland. Sarsia, 74, 1-28.

Waring, C.P., Stagg, R.M., Fretwell, K., MsKlay, H.A. & Costello, M.J., 1996. The impact of sewage sludge exposure on the reproduction of the sand goby, Pomatoschistus minutus. Environmental Pollution, 93, 1, 17-25.

Warnau, M. & Pagano, G., 1994. Developmental toxicity of PbCl2 in the echinoid Paracentrotus lividus (Echinodermata). Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 53, 434-441.

Warner, G.F. & Woodley, J.D., 1975. Suspension feeding in the brittle star Ophiothrix fragilis. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 55, 199-210.

Warner, G.F., 1971. On the ecology of a dense bed of the brittle star Ophiothrix fragilis. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 51, 267-282.

Warner, G.F., 1985. Dynamic stability in two contrasting epibenthic communities. In Proceedings of the 19th European Marine Biology Symposium, Plymouth, Devon, UK, 16-21 September, 1984 (ed. P.E. Gibbs), pp. 401-410.

Warren, L.M., 1976. A population study of the polychaete Capitella capitata at Plymouth. Marine Biology, 38, 209-216.

Warren, L.M., 1977. The ecology of Capitella capitata in British waters. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 57, 151-159.

Warren, L.M., 1979. Mediomastus fragilis Rasmussen (Polychaeta: Capitellidae), a species newly recorded from British waters. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 59, 757-760.

Warren, R.S., Fel, P.A., Grimsby, J.L., Buck, E.L., Rilling, G.C. & Fertik, R.A., 2001. Rates, patterns, and impacts of Phragmites australis expansion and effects of experimental Phragmites control on vegetation, macroinvertebrates, and fish with tidelands of the lower Connecticut river. Estuaries, 24, 90-107.

Warwick, R.M., 1986. A new method for detecting pollution effects on marine macrobenthic communities. Marine Biology, 92 (4), 557-562.

Warwick, R.M. & Davis, J.R., 1977. The distribution of sublittoral macrofauna communities in the Bristol Channel in relation to the substrate. Estuarine and Coastal Marine Science, 5, 267-288.

Warwick, R.M. & George, C.L., 1980. Annual macro-fauna production in an Abra community. In Industrialised embayments and their environmental problems: a case study of Swansea Bay (ed. M.B. Collins et al.), pp. 517-538. Oxford: Pergamon Press.

Warwick, R.M. & Price, R., 1976. Macrofauna production in an estuarine mud-flat. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 55, 1-18.

Warwick, R.M. & Somerfield, P.J., 2010. The structure and functioning of the benthic macrofauna of the Bristol Channel and Severn Estuary, with predicted effects of a tidal barrage. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 61 (1), 92-99. DOI

Warwick, R.M. & Uncles, R.J., 1980. Distribution of benthic macrofauna associations in the Bristol Channel in relation to tidal stress. Marine Biology Progress Series, 3, 97-103.

Warwick, R.M., 1984. The benthic ecology of the Bristol Channel. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 15 (2), 70-76.

Warwick, R.M., Collins, N.R., Gee, J.M. Geaorge, C.L. 1986. Species size distributions of benthic and pelagic Metazoa: evidence for interaction? Marine Ecology Progress Series 34, 63-68

Warwick, R.M., George, C.L. & Davies, J.R., 1978. Annual macrofauna production in a Venus community. Estuarine and Coastal Marine Science, 7, 215-241.

Warwick, R.M., Joint, I.R. & Radford, P.J., 1979. Secondary production of the benthos in an estuarine environment. In Ecological processes in coastal environments. Proceedings of the First European Ecological Symposium and the 19th Symposium of the British Ecological Society, Norwich, 12-16 September 1977 (ed. R.L. Jefferies and A.J. Davy), pp. 429-450. Oxford: Blackwell Science Publications.

Warwick, R.M., McEvoy, A.J., Thrush, S.,F., 1997. The influence of Atrina zealandica (Gray) on meiobenthic nematode diversity and community structure. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 214, 235-247

Waslenchuk, D.G., Matson, E.A., Zajac, R.N., Dobbs, F.C. & Tramontano, J.M., 1982. Geochemistry of burrow waters vented by a bioturbating shrimp in Bermudian sediments. Marine Biology, 72, 219-225.

Wass, P.D., Marks, S.D., Finch, J.W., Leeks, G.J.L. & Ingram, J.K., 1997. U.K. Fluxes to the North Sea, Land Ocean Interaction Study (LOIS) Rivers Basins Research, the First Two Years Monitoring and preliminary interpretation of in-river turbidity and remote sensed imagery for suspended sediment transport studies in the Humber catchment. Science of The Total Environment, 194, 263-283.

Waterman, T. (2012). Metabolism and Growth. Saint Louis: Elsevier Science.

Watkin, E.E., 1941. The yearly life cycle of the amphipod, Corophium volutator. The Journal of Animal Ecology, 10, 77-93.

Watkin, E.E., 1939(a). The swimming and burrowing habits of some species of the amphipod genus Bathyporeia. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 23, 457-465.

Watkin, E.E., 1939(b). The pelagic phase in the life history of the amphipod genus Bathyporeia. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 23, 467-481.

Watkin, E.E., 1942. The macrofauna of the intertidal sand of Kames Bay, Millport, Buteshire. Transactions of the Royal Society Edinburgh, 60, 543-561.

Watkins, A., 1960. The sea my hunting ground: St. Martin's Press.

Watling, Les, France, Scott C., Pante, Eric & Simpson, Anne, 2011. Chapter Two - Biology of Deep-Water Octocorals. In Lesser, Michael (eds.). Advances in Marine Biology. : Academic Press, pp. 41-122.

Watson, D.C. & Norton, T.A., 1985. Dietary preferences of the common periwinkle, Littorina littorea (L.). Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 88, 193-211.

Watson, D.C. & Norton, T.A., 1987. The habitat and feeding preferences of Littorina obtusata (L.) and Littorina mariae Sacchi et Rastelli. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 112, 61-72.

Watson, D.I., O'Riordan, R.M., Barnes, D.K. & Cross, T., 2005. Temporal and spatial variability in the recruitment of barnacles and the local dominance of Elminius modestus Darwin in SW Ireland. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 63 (1), pp.119-131.

Watson, G.J. & Bentley, M.G., 1995. Evidence for a coelomic maturation factor controlling oocyte maturation in the polychaete Arenicola marina (L.). Invertebrate Reproduction and Development, 31, 297-305.

Watson, G.J. & Bentley, M.G., 1998. Ooctye maturation and post-fertlization development of Arenicola marina (L.) (Annelida: Polychaeta). Invertebrate Reproduction and Development, 33, 35-46.

Watson, G.J., Cadman, P.S., Paterson, L.A., Bentley, M.G. & Auckland, M.F., 1998. Control of oocyte maturation, sperm activation and spawning in two lugworm species: Arenicola marina and A. defodiens. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 175, 167-176.

Watson, G.J., Farrell, P., Stanton, S. & Skidmore, L.C., 2007. Effects of bait collection on Nereis virens populations and macrofaunal communities in the Solent, UK. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 87 (3), 703-716.

Watson, G.J., Williams, M.E. & Bentley, M.G., 2000. Can synchronous spawning be predicted from environmental parameters? A case study of the lugworm Arenicola marina. Marine Biology, 136 (6), 1003-1017.

Watts, S., Knights, P. & Williams, J., 2001. The End of the Line? Global threats to sharks.  San Francisco, 61 pp. 

Waugh, G.D., 1964. Effect of severe winter of 1962-63 on oysters and the associated fauna of oyster grounds of southern England. Journal of Animal Ecology, 33, 173-175.

Waugh, G.D., 1957. Oyster production in the rivers Crouch and Roach, Essex from 1950-1954. Fishery Investigations, Series 2, 21, 47

Wavre, M. & Brinkhurst, R.O., 1971. Interactions between some tubificid oligochaetes and bacteria found in the sediments of Toronto Harbour, Ontario. Journal of the Fisheries Research Board of Canada, 28, 335-341.

WCMC ( World Conservation Monitoring Centre), 2000. Species Under Threat, Loggerhead - Caretta caretta., 2004-12-01

Wear, R.G., 1974. Incubation in British decapod crustacea, and the effects of temperature on the rate and success of embryonic development. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 54, 745-762.

Webb, C.J., 1980. Systematics of the Pomatoschistus minutus complex (Teleostei: Gobioidei). Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, Series B, 291, 201-241.

Webb, C.M. & Tyler, P.A., 1985. Post-larval development of the common north-west European brittle stars Ophiura ophiura, O. albida and Acrocnida brachiata (Echinodermata: Ophiuroidea). Marine Biology, 89 (3), 281-292. DOI

Webb, C.M., 1987. Post-larval development of the bivalves Nucula turgida, Venus striatula, Spisula subtruncata and Spisula elliptica (Mollusca: Bivalvia), with reference to the late larvae. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 67, 441-459.

Webb, K.E., Barnes, D.K.A. & Gray, J.S., 2009. Benthic ecology of pockmarks in the Inner Oslofjord, Norway. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 387, 15-25. 

Webb, K.E., Barnes, D.K.A. & Plankea, S., 2009b. Pockmarks: Refuges for marine benthic biodiversity. Limnology and Oceanography, 54 (5), 1776-1788. 10.4319/lo.2009.54.5.1776

Weber, L.I., Gray, D.R., Hodgson, A.N., & Hawkins, S.J., 1997. Genetic divergence between South African Helcion species and North Atlantic Helcion pellucidum (Mollusca: Patellogastropoda). Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 77, 1139-1150.

Webster, N.S., 2007. Sponge disease: a global threat? Environmental Microbiology, 9 (6), 1363-1375.

Webster, N.S. & Taylor, M.W., 2012. Marine sponges and their microbial symbionts: love and other relationships. Environmental Microbiology, 14 (2), 335-346.

Webster, N.S., Botté, E.S., Soo, R.M. & Whalan, S., 2011. The larval sponge holobiont exhibits high thermal tolerance. Environmental Microbiology Reports, 3 (6), 756-762.

Webster, N.S., Cobb, R.E. & Negri, A.P., 2008. Temperature thresholds for bacterial symbiosis with a sponge. The ISME Journal, 2 (8), 830-842.

Webster, S.K., 1975. Oxygen consumption in echinoderms from several geographical locations, with particular reference to the Echinoidea. The Biological Bulletin, 148(1), 157-164. DOI

Wedi, S.E., & Dunn, D.F., 1983. Gametogenesis and reproductive periodicity of the subtidal sea anemone Urticina lofotensis (Coelenterata: Actiniaria) in California. Biological Bulletin, Marine Biological Laboratory, Woods Hole, 165, 458-472.

Wegeberg, A.M. & Jensen, K.T., 2003. In situ growth of juvenile cockles, Cerastoderma edule, experimentally infected with larval trematodes (Himasthla interrupta). Journal of Sea Research, 50 (1), 37-43.

Wehrtmann, I., Herrera-Correal, J., Vargas, R. & Hernáez, P., 2010. Squat lobsters (Decapoda: Anomura: Galatheidae) from deepwater Pacific Costa Rica: species diversity, spatial and bathymetric distribution. Nauplius, 18, 69-77.

Weigelt, M. & Rumohr, H., 1986. Effects of wide range oxygen depletion on benthic fauna and demersal fish in Kiel Bay. Meeresforschung, 31, 124-136.

Weile, K., 1996. Baseline study of Laminaria populations in Øresund. Doc. nr. 95/120/1E. By VRI/Toxicon AB for Øresundskonsortiet

Weinberg, J.R. & Helser, T.E., 1996. Age-structure , recruitment and adult mortality in populations of the Atlantic surfclam, Spisula solidissima, from 1978 to 1997. Marine Biology, 134, 113-125.

Weinberg, S. & Weinberg, F., 1979. The life cycle of a gorgonian: Eunicella singularis (Esper, 1794). Bijdragen tot de Dierkunde, 48 (2), 127-137.

Weinberg, T., 2001. Ocean Quahog [On-line]. Status of Fisheries Resources off Northeastern United States., 2004-01-22

Weinberger, F., Buchholz, B., Karez, R. & Wahl, M., 2008. The invasive red alga Gracilaria vermiculophylla in the Baltic Sea: adaptation to brackish water may compensate for light limitation. Aquatic Biology, 3 (3), 251-264.

Weinnig, Alexis M., Gómez, Carlos E., Hallaj, Adam & Cordes, Erik E., 2020. Cold-water coral (Lophelia pertusa) response to multiple stressors: High temperature affects recovery from short-term pollution exposure. Scientific Reports, 10 (1), 1768. DOI

Weis, J.S. & Weis, P., 1992. Construction materials in estuaries: Reduction in the epibiotic community on chromated copper arsenate (CCA) treated wood. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 83, 45-53.

Wells S.M., Pyle R.M. & Collins N.M., 1983.  The IUCN invertebrate red data book. IUCN. 

Wells, E., Best, M., Scanlan, C. & Foden, J., 2014. Opportunistic Macroalgae Blooming. Water Framework Directive- development of classification tools for ecological assessment., Water Framework Directive-United Kingdom Technical Advisory Group (WFD-UKTAG),

Wells, G.P., 1945. The mode of life of Arenicola marina L. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 26, 170-207.

Wells, G.P., 1949. Respiratory movements of Arenicola marina L.: intermittent irrigation of the tube, and intermittent aerial respiration. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 28, 447-478.

Wells, H.W. & Gray, I.E., 1960. The Seasonal Occurrence of Mytilus edulis on the Carolina Coast as a Result of Transport around Cape Hatteras. Biological Bulletin, 119 (3), 550-559. DOI

Wells, R.M.G., Dales, R.P. & Warren, L.M., 1981. Oxygen equilibrium characteristics of the erythrocruorin (extracellular haemoglobin) from Owenia fusiformis Delle Chiaje (Polychaeta: Oweniidae). Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology, A, 70A, 111-114.

Welsh, D. T., Bourguès S, de Wit, R. & Auby, I., 1997. Effect of plant photosynthesis, carbon sources and ammonium availability on nitrogen fixation rates in the rhizosphere of Zostera noltii. Aquatic Microbial Ecology, 12 (3), 285-290.

Welsh, D.T., Bartoli, M., Nizzoli, D., Castaldelli, G., Riou, S.A., Viaroli, P. 2000. Denitrification, nitrogen fixation, community primary productivity and inorganic-N and oxygen fluxes in an intertidal Zostera noltii meadow Marine Ecology Progress Series 208, 65–77

Wendelboe, K., Egelund, J.T., Flindt, M.R. & Valdemarsen, T., 2013. Impact of lugworms (Arenicola marina) on mobilization and transport of fine particles and organic matter in marine sediments. Journal of Sea Research, 76, 31-38.

Wendt, D.E. & Woollacott, R.M., 1999. Ontogenies of phototactic behaviour and metamorphic competence in larvae of three species of Bugula (Bryozoa). Invertebrate Biology, 118, 75-84.

Wendt, D.E., 2000. Energetics of larval swimming and metamorphosis in four species of Bugula (Bryozoa). Biological Bulletin, 198, 346-356.

Wendt, D.E., 1998. Effect of larval swimming duration on growth and reproduction of Bugula neritina (Bryozoa) under field conditions. Biological Bulletin, 195, 126-135.

Wensel, R., McIntosh, A. & Anderson, V., 1977. Sediment contamination and benthic macroinvertebrate distribution in a metal impacted lake. Environmental Pollution, 14, 187-192.

Wernberg, T. & Thomsen, S., 2005. Miniview: What affects the forces required to break or dislodge macroalgae? European Journal of Phycology, 40 (2), 139-148.

Wernberg, T., Smale, D.A., Tuya, F., Thomsen, M.S., Langlois, T.J., de Bettignies, T., Bennett, S. & Rousseaux, C.S., 2013. An extreme climatic event alters marine ecosystem structure in a global biodiversity hotspot. Nature Climate Change, 3 (1), 78-82.

Wernberg, T., Thomsen, M.S., Staehr, P.A. & Pedersen, M.F., 2004. Epibiota communities of the introduced and indigenous macroalgal relatives Sargassum muticum and Halidrys siliquosa in Limfjorden (Denmark). Helgoland Marine Research, 58 (3), 154-161.

Wernberg, T., Thomsen, M.S., Staehr, P.A. & Pedersen, M.F., 2001. Comparative phenology of Sargassum muticum and Halidrys siliquosa (Phaeophyceae: Fucales) in Limfjorden, Denmark. Botanica Marina, 44, 31-39.

Werner, A. & Dring, M., 2011. Cultivating Palmaria palmata. Aquaculture Explained, 27, Bord Iascaigh Mhara (BIM).

Werner, A. & Kraan, S., 2004. Review of the potential mechanisation of kelp harvesting in Ireland. Marine Environment and Health Series, (No. 17).

West Wales Biodiversity Information Centre, 2018. INNS Data: All Taxa (West Wales). Occurrence dataset: accessed via on 2018-10-02.

West Wales Biodiversity Information Centre, 2018. Mammal Records (West Wales). Occurrence dataset: accessed via on 2018-10-02.

West Wales Biodiversity Information Centre, 2018. Seatrust Cetacean Records West Wales. Occurrence dataset: accessed via on 2018-10-02.

West Wales Biodiversity Information Centre, 2017. WTSWW Data: All Taxa (West Wales). Occurrence dataset: accessed via on 2018-10-02.

West, J.A., 1972. Environmental regulation of reproduction in Rhodochorton purpureum. In: Contributions to the Systematics of Benthic Marine Alage of the North Pacific, (I.A. Abbot & M. Kurogi, eds), pp. 213-230. Kobe, Japan: Japanese Society of Phycology.

Westerberg, H., Ronnback, P. & Frimansson, H., 1996. Effects of suspended sediments on fish and fish egg and larvae on the behaviour of adult herring and cod. ICES Council Meeting Papers, C.M.1996/E:26, 13.

Westerbom, M. & Jattu, S., 2006. Effects of wave exposure on the sublittoral distribution of blue mussels Mytilus edulis in a heterogeneous archipelago. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 306, 191-200.

Westerbom, M., Kilpi, M. & Mustonen, O., 2002. Blue mussels, Mytilus edulis, at the edge of the range: population structure, growth and biomass along a salinity gradient in the north-eastern Baltic Sea. Marine Biology, 140 (5), 991-999. DOI

Westin, L. & Nissling, A., 1991. Effects of salinity on spermatozoa motility, percentage of fertilized eggs and egg development of Baltic cod (Gadus morhua), and implications for cod stock fluctuations in the Baltic. Marine Biology, 108(1), 5-9.

Westlake, D.F., 1963. Comparisons of plant productivity Biological Reviews, 38, 385-425.

Weston, D.P., 1990. Quantitative examination of macrobenthic community changes along an organic enrichment gradient. Marine Ecology Progress Series61 (3), 233-244.

Westwood, S., Dunnet, G. & Hiscock, K., 1989. Monitoring the Sullom Voe terminal. Ecological Impacts of the Oil Industry, Wiley, on behalf of the Institute of Petroleium, Chichester, 261 - 285 pp. 

Wethey, D.S., 1985. Catastrophe, Extinction, and Species Diversity: A Rocky Intertidal Example. Ecology, 66 (2), 445-456.

Wethey, D.S., 1984. Sun and shade mediate competition in the barnacles Chthamalus and Semibalanus: a field experiment. The Biological Bulletin, 167 (1), 176-185.

Wethey, D.S., Woodin, S.A., Hilbish, T.J., Jones, S.J., Lima, F.P. & Brannock, P.M., 2011. Response of intertidal populations to climate: effects of extreme events versus long term change. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 400 (1), 132-144.

Wethey, D.S., Woodin, S.A., Hilbish, T.J., Jones, S.J., Lima, F.P. & Brannock, P.M., 2011. Response of intertidal populations to climate: effects of extreme events versus long term change. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 400 (1), 132-144.

Wetmore, K., 1995. Learning from the fossil record: Foram facts - an introduction to foraminifera [On-line]., 2002-08-15

Wetzel, M.A., Fleeger, J.W. & Powers, S.P., 2013. Effects of hypoxia and anoxia on meiofauna: A review with new data from the Gulf of Mexico. Coastal Hypoxia: Consequences for Living Resources and Ecosystems: American Geophysical Union, pp. 165-184.

Wetzel, R. & Penhale, P., 1983. Production ecology of seagrass communities in the lower Chesapeake Bay [Ruppia maritima, Zostera marina, Virginia]. Marine Technology Society Journal, (17), 22-31.

Whalan, S., Ettinger-Epstein, P. & de Nys, R., 2008. The effect of temperature on larval pre-settlement duration and metamorphosis for the sponge, Rhopaloeides odorabile. Coral Reefs, 27 (4), 783-786. DOI 10.1007/s00338-008-0400-9

Whale and Dolphin Conservation, 2018. WDC Shorewatch Sightings. Occurrence dataset: accessed via on 2018-10-02.

Wharfe, J.R., Flynn, E., Richardson, A. & Li Shing Tat, B., 1979. Ecological studies of the benthic invertebrate macrofauna of the Usk and Wye estuaries, South Wales. Unpublished, Welsh Water Authority, Directorate of Scientific Services, Marine Laboratory., Unpublished, Welsh Water Authority, Directorate of Scientific Services, Marine Laboratory.

Wheatcroft, R.A., Jumars, P.A., Smith, C.R. & Nowell, A.R.M., 1990. A mechanistic view of the particulate biodiffusion coefficient: step lengths, rest periods and transport directions. Journal of Marine Research, 48, 177–207.

Wheeler, A., 1994. Field Key to the Shore Fishes of the British Isles. Shrewsbury: Field Studies Council.

Wheeler, A., 1993. The distribution of Gobius cobitis in the British Isles. Journal of Fish Biology, 43, 4, 652-655.

Wheeler, A., 1969. The fishes of the British Isles and north-west Europe. London: Macmillan.

Wheeler, A., 1978. Key to the fishes of northern Europe. Frederick Warne, London.

Wheeler, A.J., Beck, T., Thiede, J., Klages, M., Grehan, A., Monteys, F.X. & Polarstern, A., 2005. Deep-water coral mounds on the Porcupine Bank, Irish Margin: preliminary results from the Polarstern ARK-XIX/3a ROV cruise. Cold-water corals and ecosystems: Springer, pp. 393-402.

Wheeler, W.N., 1980. Effect of boundary layer transport on the fixation of carbon by the giant kelp Macrocystis pyrifera. Marine Biology, 56, 103–110.

Whelan, P.M. & Cullinane, J.P., 1985. Algal flora of a subtidal Zostera bed in Ventry Bay, southwest Ireland. Aquatic Botany, 23, 41-52.

White, H.K., Hsing, P.-Y., Cho, W., Shank, T.M., Cordes, E.E., Quattrini, A.M., Nelson, R.K., Camilli, R., Demopoulos, A.W. & German, C.R., 2012. Impact of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill on a deep-water coral community in the Gulf of Mexico. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 109 (50), 20303-20308.

White, K.L., Kim, J.K. & Garbary, D.J., 2011. Effects of land-based fish farm effluent on the morphology and growth of Ascophyllum nodosum (Fucales, Phaeophyceae) in southwestern Nova Scotia. Algae, 26 (3), 253-263.

White, M. & Dorschel, B., 2010. The importance of the permanent thermocline to the cold water coral carbonate mound distribution in the NE Atlantic. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 296 (3), 395-402. DOI

White, M., 2003. Comparison of near seabed currents at two locations in the Porcupine Sea Bight - Implications for benthic fauna. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 83 (4), 683-686. DOI

White, N. & Marshall, C.M.,  2007. Saccharina latissima. Sugar kelp. Marine Life Information Network: Biology and Sensitivity Key Information Sub-programme [on-line]. Plymouth: Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom. [cited 03/11/2015]. Available from:

Whitehead, P.J.P. 1985. Clupeoid Fishes of the World: An Annotated and Illustrated Catalogue of the Herrings, Sardines, Pilchards, Sprats, Shads, Anchovies and Wolf-herring; Part 1 - Chirocentridae, Clupeidae and Pristigasteridae. FAO, 125. Rome, Italy.

Whitehead, P.J.P., Bauchot, M.-L., Hureau, J.-C., Nielson, J. & Tortonese, E. 1976. Fishes of the North-eastern Atlantic and the Mediterranean.

Whitehead, P.J.P., Bauchot, M.-L., Hureau, J.-C., Nielson, J. & Tortonese, E. 1986. Fishes of the North-eastern Atlantic and the Mediterranean. Vol. I, II & III. Paris: United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO).

Whitehouse, J., Coughlan, J., Lewis, B., Travade, F. & Britain, G., 1985. The control of biofouling in marine and estuarine power stations: a collaborative research working group report for use by station designers and station managers. Central Electricity Generating Board

Whitlatch, R.B. & Zajac, R.N., 1985. Biotic interactions among estuarine infaunal opportunistic species. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 21, 299-311.

Whitley, L.S. & Sikora, R.A., 1970. The effects of three common pollutants on the respiration rate of tubificid worms. Journal of Water Pollution, 42, 57-66.

Whitney, F., Conway, K., Thomson, R., Barrie, V., Krautter, M. & Mungov, G., 2005. Oceanographic habitat of sponge reefs on the Western Canadian Continental Shelf. Continental Shelf Research, 25 (2), 211-226. DOI

Whittick, A., 1983. Spatial and temporal distributions of dominant epiphytes on the stipes of Laminaria hyperborea (Gunn.) Fosl. (Phaeophyta: Laminariales) in S.E. Scotland. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 73, 1-10.

Whittingham, D.G., 1967. Light-induction of shedding of gametes in Ciona intestinalis and Morgula manhattensis. Biological Bulletin, Marine Biological Laboratory, Woods Hole, 132, 292-298.

WHO (World Health Organization), 1989. Mercury - Environmental Aspects. Environmental Health Criteria No. 86. Geneva: World Health Organization., Geneva: World Health Organization.

WHO (World Health Organization), 1991. Mercury - inorganic - Environmental Aspects. Environmental Health Criteria No. 118. Geneva: World Health Organization., Geneva: World Health Organization.

Whomersley, P. & Picken, G., 2003. Long-term dynamics of fouling communities found on offshore installations in the North Sea. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the UK, 83 (5), 897-901.

Whomersley, P., Huxham, M., Bolam, S., Schratzberger, M., Augley, J. & Ridland, D., 2010. Response of intertidal macrofauna to multiple disturbance types and intensities – an experimental approach. Marine Environmental Research, 69 (5), 297-308.

Whomersley, P., Van der Molen, J., Holt, D., Trundle, C., Clark, S. & Fletcher, D., 2018. Modeling the Dispersal of Spiny Lobster (Palinurus elephas) Larvae: Implications for Future Fisheries Management and Conservation Measures. Frontiers in Marine Science, 5 (58).

Whomersley, P., Ware, S., Rees, H.L., Mason, C., Bolam, T., Huxham, M. & Bates, H., 2008. Biological indicators of disturbance at a dredged-material disposal site in Liverpool Bay, UK: an assessment using time-series data. ICES Journal of Marine Science: Journal du Conseil, 65 (8), 1414-1420.

Whomersley, P., Wilson, C.M., Clements, A., Brown, C., Long, D., Leslie, A. & Limpenny, D., 2010b. Understanding the marine environment - seabed habitat investigations of submarine structures in the mid Irish Sea and Solan Bank Area of Search (AoS). Joint Nature Conservation Committee, JNCC Report no. 430., Peterborough, 128 pp. 

Wiborg, F.K., 1946. Undersøkelser over oskellet (Modiolus modiolus (L.)). Fiskeridirektoratets Skrifter (ser. Havundsrsøkelser), 8, 85.

Wicksten, M.K., 1983. Camouflage in marine invertebrates. Oceanography and Marine Biology: an Annual Review, 21, 177.

Widdicombe, S. & Austen, M.C., 1999. Mesocosm investigation into the effects of bioturbation on the diversity and structure of a subtidal macrobenthic community. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 189, 181-193.

Widdicombe, S. & Austen, M.C., 1998. Experimental evidence for the role of Brissopsis lyrifera (Forbes, 1841) as a critical species in the maintenance of benthic diversity and the modification of sediment chemistry. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 228, 241-255.

Widdicombe, S. & Spicer, J.I., 2008. Predicting the impact of ocean acidification on benthic biodiversity: What can animal physiology tell us? Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 366 (1), 187-197. DOI

Widdicombe, S., Austen, M.C., Kendall, M.A., Olsgard, F., Schaanning, M.T. , Dashfield, S.L. & Needham, H.R. , 2004. Importance of bioturbators for biodiversity maintenance: indirect effects of fishing disturbance. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 275, 1-10.

Widdicombe, S., Austen, M.C., Kendall, M.A., Warwick, R.M., & Jones, M.B., 2000. Bioturbation as a mechanism for setting and maintaining levels of diversity in subtidal macrobenthic communities. Hydrobiologia, 440, 369-377.

Widdicombe, S., Beesley, A., Berge, J., Dashfield, S., McNeill, C., Needham, H. & Øxnevad, S., 2013. Impact of elevated levels of CO 2 on animal mediated ecosystem function: the modification of sediment nutrient fluxes by burrowing urchins. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 73 (2), 416-427.

Widdows J., Lucas J.S., Brinsley M.D., Salkeld P.N. & Staff F.J., 2002. Investigation of the effects of current velocity on mussel feeding and mussel bed stability using an annular flume. Helgoland Marine Research, 56(1), 3-12.

Widdows J., Newell, R.I.E. & Mann, R., 1989. Effects of hypoxia and anoxia on survival, energy metabolism and feeding of oyster larvae (Crassostrea virginica Gmelin). Biological Bulletin, Marine Biological Laboratory, Woods Hole, 177, 154-166.

Widdows, J & Shick, J.M., 1985. Physiological responses of Mytilus edulis and Cardium edule to aerial exposure. Marine Biology, 85, 217-232.

Widdows, J. & Donkin, P., 1992. Mussels and environmental contaminants: bioaccumulation and physiological aspects. In The mussel Mytilus: ecology, physiology, genetics and culture, (ed. E.M. Gosling), pp. 383-424. Amsterdam: Elsevier Science Publ. [Developments in Aquaculture and Fisheries Science, no. 25]

Widdows, J. & Navarro, J., 2007. Influence of current speed on clearance rate, algal cell depletion in the water column and resuspension of biodeposits of cockles (Cerastoderma edule). Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 343 (1), 44-51.

Widdows, J., 1991. Physiological ecology of mussel larvae. Aquaculture, 94, 147-163.

Widdows, J., Bakke, T., Bayne, B. L., Donkin, P., Livingstone, D. R., Lowe, D. M., Moore, M. N., Evans, S. V. & Moore, S. L., 1982. Responses of Mytilus edulis on exposure to the water-accommodated fraction of North Sea oil. Marine Biology, 67 (1), 15-31. DOI

Widdows, J., Bayne, B.L., Livingstone, D.R., Newell, R.I.E. & Donkin, P., 1979. Physiological and biochemical responses of bivalve molluscs to exposure to air. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology, 62A, 301-308.

Widdows, J., Brinsley, M.D., Salkeld, P.N. & Elliott, M., 1998. Use of annular flumes to determine the influence of current velocity and bivalves on material flux at the sediment-water interface. Estuaries, 21, 552-559.

Widdows, J., Brinsley, M.D., Salkeld, P.N. & Lucas, C.H., 2000. Influence of biota on spatial and temporal variation in sediment erodability and material flux on a tidal flat (Westerschelde, The Netherlands). Marine Ecology Progress Series, 194, 23-37.

Widdows, J., Donkin, P. & Evans, S.V., 1987. Physiological responses of Mytilus edulis during chronic oil exposure and recovery. Marine Environmental Research, 23, 15-32.

Widdows, J., Donkin, P., Brinsley, M.D., Evans, S.V., Salkeld, P.N., Franklin, A., Law, R.J. & Waldock, M.J., 1995. Scope for growth and contaminant levels in North Sea mussels Mytilus edulis. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 127, 131-148.

Widdows, J., Donkin, P., Staff, F.J., Matthiessen, P., Law, R.J., Allen, Y.T., Thain, J.E., Allchin, C.R. & Jones, B.R., 2002b. Measurement of stress effects (scope for growth) and contaminant levels in mussels (Mytilus edulis) collected from the Irish Sea. Marine Environmental Research, 53 (4), 327-356. DOI

Widdows, J., Livingstone, D.R., Lowe, D., Moore, M.N., Moore, S., Pipe, R. & Salkeld, P.N., 1981. Biological effects monitoring in the region of Sullom Voe, Shetland, September 1981. Shetland Oil Terminal Environmental Advisory Group (SOTEAG), University of Aberdeen, 1982.

Widdows, J., Moore, M., Lowe, D. & Salkeld, P., 1979b. Some effects of a dinoflagellate bloom (Gyrodinium aureolum) on the mussel, Mytilus edulis. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 59 (2), 522-524.

Widdowson, T.B., 1971. A taxonomic revision of the genus Alaria Greville. Syesis, 4, 11-49.

Wiedemann, T., 1994. Oekologische Untersuchungen in Gezeitentuempeln des Helgolaender Nord-Ost Felswatts. , Diploma thesis, University of Kiel, Germany.

Wiederholm, A.M., 1987. Distribution of Pomatoschistus minutus and Pomatoschistus microps (Gobiidae, Pisces) in the Bothnian Sea: importance of salinity and temperature. Memoranda Societatis Pro Fauna and Flora Fennica, 63, 56-62.

Wieland, K. & Jarre-Teichmann, A., 1997. Prediction of vertical distribution and ambient development temperature of Baltic cod (Gadus morhua L.) eggs. Fisheries Oceanography, 6(3), 172-183.

Wiens, J.J., 2016. Climate-Related Local Extinctions Are Already Widespread among Plant and Animal Species. PLOS Biology, 14 (12), e2001104. DOI

Wieser, W. & Kanwisher, J., 1959. Respiration and anaerobic survival in some sea weed-inhabiting invertebrates Biological Bulletin, Marine Biological Laboratory, Woods Hole, 117, 594-600.

Wigginton, M.J. (ed.), 1999. British Red Data Books. 1. Vascular plants. Peterborough: Joint Nature Conservation Committee

Wikström, S.A. & Kautsky, L., 2007. Structure and diversity of invertebrate communities in the presence and absence of canopy-forming Fucus vesiculosus in the Baltic Sea. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 72 (1), 168-176.

Wilbur, C.G., 1971. Turbidity. Animals. In Marine Ecology. A comprehensive integrated treatise on life in oceans and coastal waters, vol. 1, part 2 (Ed. O. Kinne), pp. 1181-1189. London: Wiley-Interscience.

Wilbur, K.M., 1988. The Mollusca. Volume II: Form and Function. London: Academic Press Inc. Ltd.,

Wilce, R., 1965. Studies in the genus Laminaria. III. A revision of the north Atlantic species of the Simplices section of Laminaria. Bot. gothoburg., 3, 247-256.

Wilce, R., Foertch, J., Grocki, W., Kilar, J., Levine, H. & Wilce, J., 1978. Benthic studies in the vicinity of pilgrim nuclear power station, 1969-1977.  Boston Edison Co., 307-656 pp. 

Wilce, R.T., 1959. The Marine Algae of the Labrador Peninsula and Northwest Newfoundland: Ecology and Distribution: National Museum of Canada.

Wilce, R.T., 1966. Pleurocladia lacustris in Arctic America. Journal of Phycology, 2, 57-66.

Wild, C., Mayr, C., Wehrmann, L., Schöttner, S., Naumann, M., Hoffmann, F. & Rapp, H., 2008. Organic matter release by cold water corals and its implication for fauna–microbe interaction. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 372, 67-75. DOI

Wilde de P.A.W.J. & Berghuis, E.M., 1979. Spawning and gamete production inn Arenicola marina in the Netherlands, Wadden Sea. Netherlands Journal of Sea Research, 13, 503-511.

Wildgust, M.A. & Jones, M.B., 1998. Salinity change and the toxicity of the free cadmium ion [Cd2+(aq)] to Neomysis integer (Crustacea: Mysidacea). Aquatic Toxicology, 41, 187-192.

Wilding, C.M., Beaumont, A.R. & Latchford, J.W., 1999. Are Pecten maximus and Pecten jacobaeus different species? Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 79, 949-952.

Wilding, C.M., Latchford, J.W. & Beaumont, A.R., 1998. An investigation of possible stock structure in Pecten maximus (L.) using multivariate morphometrics, allozyme electrophoresis and mitochondrial DNA polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. Journal of Shellfish Research, 17, 131-139.

Wilding T. & Hughes D., 2010. A review and assessment of the effects of marine fish farm discharges on Biodiversity Action Plan habitats. Scottish Association for Marine Science, Scottish Aquaculture Research Forum (SARF).

Wilding, T. A., 2011. A characterization and sensitivity analysis of the benthic biotopes around Scottish salmon farms with a focus on the sea pen Pennatula phosphorea L. Aquaculture Research 42: 35-40.  DOI

Wilding, T.A., Cromey, C.J., Nickell, T.D. & Hughes, D.J., 2012. Salmon farm impacts on muddy-sediment megabenthic assemblages on the west coast of Scotland. Aquaculture Environment Interactions, 2, 145-156. DOI

Wildish, D. & Miyares, M., 1990. Filtration rate of blue mussels as a function of flow velocity: preliminary experiments. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 142 (3), 213-219.

Wildish, D. & Peer, D., 1983. Tidal current speed and production of benthic macrofauna in the lower Bay of Fundy. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 40 (S1), s309-s321.

Wildish, D., Kristmanson, D., Hoar, R., DeCoste, A., McCormick, S. & White, A., 1987. Giant scallop feeding and growth responses to flow. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 113 (3), 207-220.

Wildish, D.J. & Fader, G.B.J., 1998. Pelagic-benthic coupling in the Bay of Fundy. Hydrobiologia, 375/376, 369-380.

Wildish, D.J. & Kristmanson, D.D., 1984. Importance of mussels of the benthic boundary layer. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 41, 1618-1625.

Wildish, D.J. & Kristmanson, D.D., 1985. Control of suspension feeding bivalve production by current speed. Helgolander Meeresuntersuchungen, 39, 237-243.

Wildish, D.J. & Thomas, M.L.H., 1985. Effects of dredging and dumping on benthos of Saint John Harbour, Canada. Marine Environmental Research, 15, 45-57.

Wildish, D.J., Akage, H.M. & Hamilton, N., 2000. Effects of velocity on horse mussel initial feeding behaviour. Canadian Technical Report of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, no. 2325, 34pp.

Wildish, D.J., Fader, G.B.J., Lawton, P. & MacDonald, A.J., 1998. The acoustic detection and characteristics of sublittoral bivalve reefs in the Bay of Fundy. Continental Shelf Research, 18, 105-113.

Wildscreen, 2004. Loggerhead turtle (Caretta caretta).[On-line], 2004-12-01

Wilhelm, E., Bueckman, D. & Tomaschko, K.-H., 1997. Life cycle and population dynamics of Pycnogonum litorale. Marine Biology, 129, 601-606.

Wilkens, L.A., 1991. Neurobiology and behaviour of the scallop. In Scallops: biology, ecology and aquaculture (ed. S.E. Shumway), pp.429-469. Amsterdam: Elsevier. [Developments in Aquaculture and Fisheries Science, no.21.]

Wilkes, R.J., McIvor, L.M. & Guiry, M.D., 2005. Using rbcl sequence data to reassess the taxonomic position of some Grateloupia and Dermocorynus species (Halymeniaceae; Rhodophyta) from the north-eastern Atlantic. European Journal of Phycology, 40, 53-60

Wilkie, I.C 1990. First record of the spoon-worm Thalassema thalassemum (Pallas), Echiura, in Scottish waters. Glasgow Naturalist, 21, 515-517,

Wilkie, I.C., 1978. Arm autonomy in brittlestars (Echinodermata: Ophiuroidea). Journal of Zoology, 186, 311-330.

Wilkinson, Adam D., Collier, Catherine J., Flores, Florita & Negri, Andrew P., 2015. Acute and additive toxicity of ten photosystem-II herbicides to seagrass. Scientific Reports, 5 (1), 17443. DOI

Wilkinson, M., 1995. Information review on the impact of kelp harvesting. Scottish Natural Heritage Review, no. 34, 54 pp.

Willems, K.A., Vanosmael, C., Claeys, D., Vincx, M. & Heip, C., 1982. Benthos of a sublittoral sandbank in the southern bight of the North Sea: general considerations. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 62, 549-557.

Willems, W., Goethals, P., Van den Eynde, D., Van Hoey, G., Van Lancker, V., Verfaillie, E., Vincx, M. & Degraer, S., 2008. Where is the worm? Predictive modelling of the habitat preferences of the tube-building polychaete Lanice conchilega. Ecological Modelling, 212 (1–2), 74-79.

Willemsen, P.R., Overbeke, K. & Suurmond, A., 1998. Repetitive testing of TBTO, Sea-nine 211 and farnesol using Balanus amphitrite (Darwin) cypris larvae: variability in larval sensitivity. Biofouling, 12, 133-147.

Williams, A., Schlacher, T. A., Rowden, A. A., Althaus, F., Clark, M. R., Bowden, D. A., Stewart, R., Bax, N. J., Consalvey, M. & Kloser, R. J., 2010. Seamount megabenthic assemblages fail to recover from trawling impacts. Marine Ecology-an Evolutionary Perspective, 31, 183-199. DOI

Williams, D.D., 1979b. Archigetes iowensis (Cestoda: Caryophyllidae) from Limnodrilus hoffmeisteri (Annelida: Tubificidae) in Wisconsin. Proceedings of the Helminthological Society of Washington, 46, 272-274.

Williams, E.E., 1965. The growth and distribution of Monodonta lineata (da Coasta) on a rocky shore in Wales. Field Studies, 2, 189-198.

Williams, G.A. & Seed, R., 1992. Interactions between macrofaunal epiphytes and their host algae. In Plant-animal interactions in the marine benthos (ed. D.M John, S.J. Hawkins & J.H. Price), pp. 189-211. Oxford: Clarendon Press. [Systematics Association Special Volume, no. 46.]

Williams, G.A., 1996. Seasonal variation in a low shore Fucus serratus (Fucales, Phaeophyta) population and its epiphytic fauna. Hydrobiologia, 326/327, 191-197.

Williams, G.C., 2011. The global diversity of sea pens (Cnidaria: Octocorallia: Pennatulacea). PLoS ONE, 6 (7). DOI

Williams, G.C. & Alderslade, P., 2011. Three new species of pennatulacean octocorals with the ability to attach to rocky substrata (Cnidaria: Anthozoa: Pennatulacea). Zootaxa, 3001 (1), 33. DOI

Williams, J.A., 1995. Burrow-zone distribution of the supralittoral amphipod Talitrus saltator on Derbyhaven Beach, Isle of Man: a possible mechanism for regulating desiccation stress? Journal of Crustacean Biology, 15: 466-475.

Williams, J.A., 1979. A semi-lunar rhythm of locomotor activity and moult synchrony in the sand-beach amphipod Talitrus saltator. In Cyclic phenomena in marine plants and animals (ed. E. Naylor & Hartnoll, R.). London: Pergamon Press.

Williams, J.A., 1978. The annual pattern of reproduction of Talitrus saltator (Crustacea: Amphipoda: Talitidae). Journal of Zoology, 184, 231-244.

Williams, J.A., 1983. The endogenous locomotor activity rhythm of four supralittoral peracarid crustaceans. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 63, 481-492.

Williams, J.A., 1983b. Environmental regulation of the burrow depth distribution of the sand-beach amphipod Talitrus saltator. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 16, 291-298.

Williams, J.A., 1980. The light response rhythm and seasonal entrainment of the endogenous circadian locomotor of Talitrus saltator (Crustacea: Amphipoda). Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 60, 773-785.

Williams, J.A., 1985. The role of photoperiod in the initiation of breeding and brood development in the amphipod Talitrus saltator Montagu. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 86, 59-72.

Williams, J.A., 1976. The effect of light on the locomotor activity and general biology of Talitrus saltator (Montagu). , Ph.D. thesis, Liverpool University, 258 pp.

Williams, J.A., 1996b. Burrow-zone distribution of the supralittoral amphipod Talitrus saltator on Derbyhaven Beach, Isle of Man - a possible mechanism for regulating desiccation stress? Journal of Crustacean Biology, 15, 466-475.

Williams, J.L., 1898. Reproduction in Dictyota dichotoma. Annals of botany, 4, 559-560.

Williams, R., 1997. Actinothoe sphyrodeta (Cnidaria, Actiniaria): the first records from Portugal and the Mediterranean Sea. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 77 (1), 245-248.

Williams, R.B., 1975. Catch-tentacles in sea anemones: occurrence in Haliplanella luciae (Verrill) and a review of current knowledge. Journal of Natural History, 9, 241-248.

Williams, R.B., 1991. Nematostella vectensis. In British Red Data Books. III. Invertebrates other than insects (ed. J.H. Bratton), pp. 32-33. Peterborough: Joint Nature Conservation Committee.

Williams, R.B., 1976. Conservation of the sea anemone Nematostella vectensis in Norfolk, England, and its worldwide distribution. Transactions of the Norfolk and Norwich Naturalists Society, 23, 257-266.

Williams, R.B., 1983. Nematostella vectensis. In The IUCN invertebrate red data book (ed. S.M. Wells, R.M. Pyle and N.M. Collins), pp. 43-46. Gland: IUCN.

Williams, R.B., 2000. A redescription of the zoanthid Isozoanthus sulcatus (Gosse, 1859), with notes on its nomenclature, systematics, behaviour, habitat and geographical distribution. Ophelia, 52, 193-206.

Williams, R.J., 1970. Freezing tolerance in Mytilus edulis. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology, 35, 145-161

Williams, S.L., 1988. Disturbance and recovery of a deep-water Caribbean seagrass bed. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 42 (1), 63-71.

Williams, S.L., 2001. Reduced genetic diversity in eelgrass transplantations affects both population growth and individual fitness. Ecological Applications, 11 (5), 1472-1488.

Williams, S.L., 2007. Introduced species in seagrass ecosystems: status and concerns. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 350 (1), 89-110.

Williams, S.L. & Davis, C.A., 1996. Population genetic analyses of transplanted eelgrass (Zostera marina) beds reveal reduced genetic diversity in southern California. Restoration Ecology, 4 (2), 163-180.

Williams, T.M & Unz, R.F., 1989. The nutrition of Thiothrix, Type 021N, Beggiatoa and Leucothrix strains. Water Research, 23, 15-22.

Williams, T. P., Bubb, J. M. & Lester, J. N., 1994. Metal accumulation within salt-marsh environments - a review. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 28 (5), 277-290. DOI

Williamson, D.I., 1951. Studies in the biology of Talitridae (Crustacea, Amphipoda): effects of atmospheric humidity. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 30, 73-90.

Williamson, D.I., 1951b. Studies in the biology of Talitidae (Crustacea, Amphipoda): visual orientation in Talitrus saltator. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 30, 91-100.

Williamson, J.A., Fenner, P.J., Burnett, J.W. & Rifkin, J.F., 1996. Venomous and poisonous marine animals: a medical and biological handbook. Sydney: University of New South Wales Press.

Williamson, P. & Kendall, M.A., 1981. Population age structure and growth of the trochid Monodonta lineata determined from shell rings. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 61, 1011-1026.

Willis, K.J., Cook, E.J., Lozano-Fernandez, M. & Takeuchi I., 2004. First record of the alien caprellid amphipod, Caprella mutica, for the UK. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 84, 1027-1028.

Wilson S., Blake C., Berges J.A. and Maggs C.A. 2004. Environmental tolerances of free-living coralline algae (maerl): implications for European marine conservation. Biological Conservation, 120(2), 279-289.

Wilson, C.M., Crothers, J.H. & Oldham, J.H., 1983. Realized niche: the effects of a small stream on sea-shore distribution patterns. Journal of Biological Education, 17, 51-58.

Wilson D.P. 1970. The larvae of Sabellaria spinulosa and their settlement behaviour. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom 50: 33-52

Wilson, D.P., 1936. Notes on the early stages of two polychaetes, Nephtys hombergii Lamarck and Pectinaria koreni Malmgren. Journal of the Marine Biological Association UK, 21, 305-310.

Wilson, D.P., 1929. The larvae of the British sabellarians. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 16, 221-269.

Wilson, D.P., 1969. The honey comb worm. Sea Frontiers, 15, 322-29.

Wilson, D.P., 1971. Sabellaria colonies at Duckpool, North Cornwall 1961 - 1970 Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 54, 509-580.

Wilson, D.P., 1968. Some aspects of the development of the eggs and larvae of Sabellaria alveolata (L.). Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 48, 367-86.

Wilson, D.P., 1970a. Additional observations on larval growth and settlement of Sabellaria alveolata. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 50, 1-32.

Wilson, D.P., 1970b. The larvae of Sabellaria spinulosa and their settlement behaviour. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 50, 33-52.

Wilson, D.P., 1951. A biological difference between natural sea waters. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 30, 1-19.

Wilson, D.P., 1932. On mitraria larva of Owenia fusiformis Delle Chiaje. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, Series B, 221, 231-334.

Wilson, D.P., 1947. The Portuguese man-o-war, Physalia physalis L. in British and adjacent seas. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 27, 139-172.

Wilson, D.P., 1959. The polychaete Magelona filiformis sp.nov. and notes on other species of Magelona. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 38(3), 547-556.

Wilson, H.V., 1935. Some critical points in the metamorphosis of the halichondrine sponge larva. Journal of Morphology, 58, 285-354.

Wilson, J., 1984. Assessment of the effect of short term salinity changes on the acute oxygen consumption of Cerastoderma balthica and Tellina tenuis from Dublin Bay. Journal of Life Sciences Royal Dublin Society, 5 (1), 57-63.

Wilson, J.B., 1979a. The distribution of the coral Lophelia pertusa (L.) [L. prolifera (Pallas)] in the North-east Atlantic. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 59, 149-164.

Wilson, J.B., 1979b. 'Patch' development of the deep-water coral Lophelia pertusa (L.) on Rockall Bank. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 59, 165-177.

Wilson, J.B., 1976. Attachment of the coral Caryophyllia smithii S. & B. to tubes of the polychaete Ditrupa arietina (Müller) and other substrates. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 56, 291-303.

Wilson, J.B., 1975. The distribution of the coral Caryophyllia smithii S. & B. on the Scottish continental shelf. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 55, 611-625.

Wilson, J.G. & Davis, J.P., 1984. The effect of environmental variables on the oxygen consumption of the protobranch bivalve Nucula turgida (Leckenby & Marshall). Journal of Molluscan Studies, 50, 73-77.

Wilson, J.G. & Elkaim, B., 1997. Seasonal and geographical differences in oxygen consumption with temperature of Cerastoderma glaucum (Poiret) and a comparison with C. edule (L.). Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 45 (5), 571-577.

Wilson, J.G. & Elkain, B., 1991. Tolerances to high temperature of individual bivalves and the effect of geographic distribution, position on the shore and season. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 71, 169-177.

Wilson, J.G., 1993. Climate change and the future for the cockle Cerastoderma edule in Dublin Bay - an exercise in prediction modelling. In Biogeography of Ireland: past, present, and future, (ed. M.J. Costello & K.S. Kelly), pp. 140-149. Occasional publication of the Irish Biogeographical Society, no. 2. Dublin: Irish Biogeographical Society Ltd.

Wilson, J.G., 1981. Temperature tolerance of circatidal bivalves in relation to their distribution. Journal of Thermal Biology, 6, 279-286.

Wilson, J.G., 1983. The uptake and accumulation of Ni by Cerastoderma edule and its effect on mortality, body condition and respiration rate. Marine Environmental Research, 8, 129-148.

Wilson, J.G., 1978. Upper temperature tolerances of Tellina tenuis and T. fabula. Marine Biology, 45, 123-128.

Wilson, J.G., 1992. Age specific energetics of reproduction in Nucula turgida (Leckenby & Marshall) a bivalve with lecithotrophic larval development. Invertebrate Reproduction and Development, 22, 275-280.

Wilson, J.H. & Simons, J., 1985. Gametogenesis and breeding of Ostrea edulis on the west coast of Ireland. Aquaculture, 46, 307-321

Wilson, K.G. & Ralph, P.J., 2008. A comparison of the effects of Tapis crude oil and dispersed crude oil on subtidal Zostera capricorni. International Oil Spill Conference, pp. 859–864.

Wilson, K.G. & Ralph, P.J., 2012. Laboratory testing protocol for the impact of dispersed petrochemicals on seagrass. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 64 (11), 2421-2427. DOI

Wilson, K.L., Kay, L.M., Schmidt, A.L. & Lotze, H.K., 2015. Effects of increasing water temperatures on survival and growth of ecologically and economically important seaweeds in Atlantic Canada: implications for climate change. 162 (12), 2431-2444. DOI

Wilson, M.T., Andrews, A.H., Brown, A.L. & Cordes, E.E., 2002. Axial rod growth and age estimation of the sea pen, Halipteris willemoesi Kölliker Hydrobiologia, 471, 133-142.

Wilson, S.G., 2004. Basking sharks (Cetorhinus maximus) schooling in the southern Gulf of Maine. Fisheries Oceanography, 13 (4), 283-286.

Wilson, W.H. & Parker, K., 1996. The life history of the amphipod, Corophium volutator: the effects of temperature and shorebird predation. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 196, 239-250.

Wilson, W.H., 1991. Competition and predation in marine soft sediment communities. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics, 21, 221-241.

Wilson, W.H., 1991. Sexual reproductive modes in Polychaetes: Classification and diversity. Bulletin of Marine Science, 48 (2), 500-516

Windham, L., Weiss, J.S. & Weiss, P., 2001. Lead uptake, distribution and effects in two dominant salt marsh macrophytes, Spartina alterniflora (cordgrass) and Phragmites australis (common reed). Marine Pollution Bulletin, 42, 811-816.

Winslade, P.R., 1971. Behavioural and embryological investigations of the lesser sandeel, Ammodytes marinus Raitt. 93p. University East Anglia, Thesis,

Winston, J.E., 1977. Feeding in marine bryozoans. In Biology of Bryozoans (ed. R.M. Woollacott & R.L. Zimmer), pp. 233-271.

Winter, H., Aarts, G. & Van Keeken, O., 2010. Residence time and behaviour of sole and cod in the Offshore Wind farm Egmond aan Zee (OWEZ). IMARES Wageningen UR.

Winter, J., 1972. Long-term laboratory experiments on the influence of ferric hydroxide flakes on the filter-feeding behaviour, growth, iron content and mortality in Mytilus edulis L. Marine pollution and sea life. (ed. Ruvio, M.) London, England, pp. 392-396.

Winters, G., Nelle, P., Fricke, B., Rauch, G. & Reusch, T., 2011. Effects of a simulated heat wave on photophysiology and gene expression of high- and low-latitude populations of Zostera marina. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 435, 83-95. DOI

Wippelhauser, G.S., 1996. Ecology and management of Maine's eelgrass, rockweed, and kelps. Augusta: Department of Conservation.

Wisshak, M., Freiwald, A., Lundälv, T. & Gektidis, M., 2005. The physical niche of the bathyal Lophelia pertusa in a non-bathyal setting: environmental controls and palaeoecological implications. Cold-Water Corals and Ecosystems: Springer, pp. 979-1001.

Witbaard, R. & Bergman M., 2003. The distribution and population structure of the bivalve Arctica islandica L. in the North Sea: what possible factors are involved? Journal of Sea Research, 50, 11-25.

Witbaard, R. & Duineveld, G.C.A., 1989. Some aspects of the biology and ecology of the burrowing shrimp Callianassa subterranea (Montagu) (Thalassinidae) from the southern North Sea. Sarsia, 74, 209-219.

Witbaard, R. & Klein, R., 1994. Long-term trends on the effects of the southern North Sea beamtrawl fishery on the bivalve mollusc Arctica islandica L. (Mollusca, Bivalvia). ICES Journal of Marine Science: Journal du Conseil, 51 (1), 99-105.

Witbaard, R., 1996. Growth variations in Arctica islandica L. (Mollusca): a reflection of hydrography-related food supply. ICES Journal of Marine Science: Journal du Conseil, 53 (6), 981-987.

Witbaard, R., Duineveld, G.C.A. & de Wilde, P.A.W.J., 1999. Geographical differences in growth rates of Arctica islandica (Mollusca: Bivalvia) from the North Sea and adjacent waters. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 79 (5), 907-915.

Witherby, H.F., Jourdain, F.C.R, Ticehurst, N.F. & Tucker, B.W., 1947. The handbook of British birds. H., F., & G. Witherby Ltd.

Withers, R., Farnham, W., Lewey, S., Jephson, N., Haythorn, J. & Gray, P., 1975. The epibionts of Sargassum muticum in British waters. Marine Biology, 31 (1), 79-86.

Withers, R.G. & Thorp, C.M., 1978. The macrobenthos inhabiting sandbanks in Langstone Harbour, Hampshire. Journal of Natural History, 12, 445-455.

Withers, R.G., 1977. Soft-shore macrobenthos along the south west coast of Wales. Estuarine and Coastal Marine Science, 5, 467-484.

Witman, J.D. & Suchanek, T.H., 1984. Mussels in flow: drag and dislodgement by epizoans. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 16 (3), 259-268.

Witman, J.D., 1984. Ecology of rocky subtidal communities: the role of Modiolus modiolus (L.) and the influence of disturbance, competition and mutalism. , Ph.D. thesis. University of New Hampshire, Durham, USA.

Witman, J.D., 1985. Refuges, biological disturbance and rocky subtidal community structure in New England. Ecological Monographs, 55, 421-445.

Witt, J., 2004. Analysing brackish benthic communities of the Weser estuary: Spatial distribution, variability and sensitivity of estuarine invertebrates.Alfred-Wegener-Institut für Polar- und Meeresforschung, Bremerhaven,

Witt, J., Schroeder, A., Knust, R. & Arntz, W.E., 2004. The impact of harbour sludge disposal on benthic macrofauna communities in the Weser estuary. Helgoland Marine Research, 58 (2), 117-128.

Witt, M.J., Doherty, P.D., Godley, B.J., Graham, R.T., Hawkes, L.A. & Henderson, S.M., 2014. Basking shark satellite tagging project: insights into basking shark (Cetorhinus maximus) movement, distribution and behaviour using satellite telemetry (Phase 1, July 2014). Scottish Natural Heritage, Inverness, Scotland,  69 pp. Available from:

Witt, M.J., Doherty, P.D., Godley, B.J., Graham, R.T., Hawkes, L.A. & Henderson, S.M., 2016. Basking shark satellite tagging project: insights into basking shark (Cetorhinus maximus) movement, distribution and behaviour using satellite telemetry. Final Report. Scottish Natural Heritage, Inverness, Scotland,  80 pp. Available from:

Witt, M.J., Doherty, P.D., Hawkes, L.A., Godley, B.J., Graham, R.T. & Henderson, S.M., 2013. Basking shark satellite tagging project: post-fieldwork report. Scottish Natural Heritage, Inverness, Scotland,  30 pp. Available from:

Witt, M.J., Hardy, T., Johnson, L., McClellan, C.M., Pikesley, S.K., Ranger, S., Richardson, P.B., Solandt, J.-L., Speedie, C., Williams, R. & Godley, B.J., 2012. Basking sharks in the northeast Atlantic: spatio-temporal trends from sightings in UK waters. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 459, 121-134.

Witte, S., Buschbaum, C., van Beusekom, J.E. & Reise, K., 2010. Does climatic warming explain why an introduced barnacle finally takes over after a lag of more than 50 years? Biological Invasions, 12 (10), 3579-3589.

Witte, U., Bartel, D. & Tendal, O., 1994. The reproductive cycle of the sponge Halichondria panicea Pallas (1766) and its relationship to temperature and salinity. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 183, 42-52.

WMCM: World Conservation Monitoring Centre. 2000. Species Under Threat. Loggerhead - Caretta caretta., 2004-12-01

Wolfe, J.M. & Harlin, M.M., 1988a. Tidepools in Southern Rhode Island, U.S.A. I. Distribution and seasonality of algae. Botanica Marina, 31, 525-536.

Wolfe, J.M. & Harlin, M.M., 1988b. Tidepools in Southern Rhode Island, U.S.A. II. Species diversity and similarity analysis of macroalgal communities. Botanica Marina, 31, 537-546.

Wolff, W.J., 1968. The Echinodermata of the estuarine region of the rivers Rhine, Meuse and Scheldt, with a list of species occurring in the coastal waters of the Netherlands. The Netherlands Journal of Sea Research, 4, 59-85.

Wolff, W.J., 1973. The estuary as a habitat. An analysis of the data in the soft-bottom macrofauna of the estuarine area of the rivers Rhine, Meuse, and Scheldt. Zoologische Verhandelingen, 126, 1-242.

Wolff, W.J., 1971. Distribution of four species of Nephtys (Polychaeta) in the estuarine area of the rivers Rhine, Meuse and Scheldt. Vie et Milieu, Supplement 22, 677-699.

Wolff, W.J., 1971b. Changes in intertidal benthos communities after an increase in salinity. Thalassia Jugoslavica, 7, 429-434.

Wolfram, K., Mark, F.C., John, U., Lucassen, M. & Pörtner, H.O., 2006. Microsatellite DNA variation indicates low levels of genetic differentiation among cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis L.) populations in the English Channel and the Bay of Biscay. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part D: Genomics and Proteomics, 1, 375-383.

Wollgast, S., Lenz, M., Wahl, M., & Molis, M., 2008. Effects of regular and irregular temporal patterns of disturbance on biomass accrual and species composition of a subtidal hard-bottom assemblage. Helgoland Marine Research62(4), 309-319.

Wong, J.M. & Benzie, J.A.H., 2003. The effects of temperature, Artemia enrichment, stocking density and light on the growth of juvenile seahorses, Hippocampus whitei (Bleeker, 1855), from Australia. Aquaculture, 228 (1), 107-121. DOI

Wood, C., 2007. Seasearch Observer's Guide to Marine Life of Britain and Ireland,  Ross-on-Wye: Marine Conservation Society.

Wood, C., 2015. The red ripple bryozoan Watersipora subatra. Great Britain Non-native Species Secretariat. [On-line][cited 16/06/2015]. Available from:

Wood, C., 2009. Seasearch Observer's Guide to Marine Life of Britain and Ireland,  Ross-on-Wye: Seasearch.

Wood, C., 2015b. Seasearch Pink Sea Fan Surveys 2014.  Report published by Marine Conservation Society for Seasearch.

Wood, C., 1984. Sussex sublittoral survey. Selsey Bill to Beachy Head. (Contractor: Marine Conservation Society, South East Branch), unpublished report to Nature Conservancy Council, CSD Report, no. 527.

Wood, C., 2013. Sea anemones and corals of Briain and Ireland, 2 edn. Wild Nature Press, Plymouth, UK.

Wood, E. (ed.), 1988. Sea Life of Britain and Ireland. Marine Conservation Society. IMMEL Publishing, London

Wood, E.M. & Wood, C.R., 1986. Channel tunnel sublittoral survey. Report for the Nature Conservancy Council. 87pp., Marine Conservation Society.

Wood, E.M., 1987. Subtidal Ecology. London: Edward Arnold.

Wood, H.L., Spicer, J.I., Lowe, D.M. & Widdicombe, S., 2010. Interaction of ocean acidification and temperature; the high cost of survival in the brittlestar Ophiura ophiura. Marine Biology, 10, 2001-2013.

Wood, V. & Seed, R., 1980. The effects of shore level on the epifaunal communities associated with Fucus serratus in the Menai Strait, North Wales. Cahiers de Biologie Marine, 21, 135-154.

Wood, V. & Seed, R., 1992. Reproduction and growth of Alcyodinium hirsutum (Fleming) and Flustrellidra hispida (Fabricius) (Bryozoa: Ctenostomata) within a Fucus serratus L. community. Cahiers de Biologie Marine, 33, 347-363.

Wood. C., 2005. Seasearch guide to sea anemones and corals of Britain and Ireland. Ross-on-Wye: Marine Conservation Society.

Woodall, L. 2017. Hippocampus hippocampusThe IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2017: e.T10069A67618259.

Woodall, L.C., Otero-Ferrer, F., Correia, M., Curtis, J.M.R., Garrick-Maidment, N., Shaw, P.W. & Koldewey, H.J., 2018. A synthesis of European seahorse taxonomy, population structure, and habitat use as a basis for assessment, monitoring and conservation. Marine Biology, 165 (1), 19-19. DOI https/

Woodhead, A.D., 1975. Endocrine physiology of fish migration. Oceanography and Marine Biology: An Annual Review, 13, 287-382.

Woodin, S.A., 1978. Refuges, disturbance and community structure: a marine soft bottom example. Ecology, 59, 274-284.

Woodin, S.A., 1974. Polychaete abundance patterns in a marine soft-sediment environment: the importance of biological interactions. Ecological Monographs, 44, 171-187.

Woodward, F.R., 1985. The Fan-mussel, Pinna fragilis Pennant in Scotland Glasgow Naturalist, 21, 63-69.

Woodworth, P.L., Shaw, S.M. & Blackman, D.L., 1991. Secular trends in mean tidal range around the British Isles and along the adjacent European coastline. Geophysical Journal International, 104 (3), 593-609. DOI

Woolmer, A.P., Syvret, M. & Fitzgerald, A., 2011. Restoration of Native Oyster, Ostrea edulis, in South Wales: Options and Approaches. CCW Contract Science Report, no: 960, pp. 93.

Wooten, W. 2004. A Guide To The Most Common Seahorse Diseases and Medical Conditions [Online]. [cited 10/06/2021]. Available from:

Wootton, E., Dyrynda, E., Pipe, R. & Ratcliffe, N., 2003. Comparisons of PAH-induced immunomodulation in three bivalve molluscs. Aquatic Toxicology, 65 (1), 13-25.

Wootton, J.T., 1991. Direct and indirect effects of nutrients on intertidal community structure: variable consequences of seabird guano. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 151, 139-153.

Workman, C., 1983. Comparisons of energy partitioning in contrasting age-structured populations of the limpet Patella vulgata L. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 68, 81-103.

World Animal Protection, 2014. Fishing’s phantom menace: How ghost fishing gear is endangering our sea life. London, 52 pp. 

World Wide Fund for Nature, 1998. Lophelia pertusa - a cold water coral. Marine Fact sheet, 2p., Goldalming, Surrey: WWF-UK.,

Worm, B. & Chapman, A.R.O., 1998. Relative effects of elevated grazing pressure and competition from a red algal turf on two post settlement stages of Fucus evanescens. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 220, 247-268.

WoRMS 2007. The World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS)., 2008-10-31

WoRMS, 2015. World Register of Marine Species. (11/04/2007).

WoRMS [WWW Document], 2019. Munida gregaria Fabr. 1793. URL (accessed 9.27.19)

Wotton, D.M., O'Brien, C., Stuart, M.D. & Fergus, D.J., 2004. Eradication success down under: heat treatment of a sunken trawler to kill the invasive seaweed Undaria pinnatifida. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 49 (9), 844-849.

Wouters, D., 1993. 100 jaar na de invasie van de Amerikaanse boormossel: de relatie Petricola pholadiformis Lamarck, 1818, Barnea candida, Linnaeus, 1758. De Strandvlo, 13, 3-39.

Wright, D.A., 1977. The effect of salinity on cadmium uptake by the tissues of the shore crab Carcinus maenas. Journal of Experimental Biology, 67, 137-146.

Wright, E.P., Kemp, K., Rogers, A.D. & Yesson, C., 2015. Genetic structure of the tall sea pen Funiculina quadrangularis in NW Scottish sea lochs. Marine Ecology, 36 (3), 659-667.

Wright, J., Colling, A., Park, D. & Open University Oceanography Course Team, 2001. Waves, Tides, and Shallow-water Processes.  Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann.

Wright, J.T., Benkendorff, K., & Davis, A.R., 1997. Habitat associated differences in temperate sponge assemblies: the importance of chemical defence. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 213, 199-213.

Wright, P.J. & Bailey, M.C., 1996. Timing of hatching in Ammodytes marinus from Shetland waters and its significance to early growth and survivorship. Marine Biology, 126(1), 143-152.

Wright, P.J. & Reed, R.H., 1985. The effects of osmotic stress on intracellular hexitols in the marine brown alga Himanthalia elongata (L.) S.F. Gray. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 93 (1), 183-190.

Wright, P.J., Jensen, H. & Tuck, I., 2000. The influence of sediment type on the distribution of the lesser sandeel, Ammodytes marinus. Journal of Sea Research, 44, 243-256.

Wright, P.J., Pedersen, S.A., Donald, L., Anderson, C., Lewy, P. & Proctor, R., 1998. The influence of physical factors on the distribution of Lesser Sandeels and its relevance to fishing pressure in the North Sea. ICES Council Meeting Papers AA:3.

Wright, S.L., Rowe, D., Reid, M.J., Thomas, K.V. & Galloway, T.S., 2015. Bioaccumulation and biological effects of cigarette litter in marine worms. Scientific reports, 5, 14119.

Wright, S.L., Rowe, D., Thompson, R.C. & Galloway, T.S., 2013. Microplastic ingestion decreases energy reserves in marine worms. Current Biology, 23 (23), R1031-R1033.

Wright, S.L., Rowe, D., Thompson, R.C. & Galloway, T.S., 2013. Microplastic ingestion decreases energy reserves in marine worms. Current Biology, 23 (23), R1031-R1033.

Wright, S.L., Thompson, R.C. & Galloway, T.S., 2013b. The physical impacts of microplastics on marine organisms: A review. Environmental Pollution, 178, 483-492.

Wu, B., Qian, P. & Zhang, S., 1988. Morphology, reproduction, ecology and isoenzyme electrophoresis of Capitella complex in Qingdao. Acta Oceanologica Sinica, 7 (3), 442-458.

Wu, R.S.S., Lam, P.K.S. & Zhou, B.S., 1997. Effects of two oil dispersants on phototaxis and swimming behaviour of barnacle larvae. Hydrobiologia, 352, 9-16.

Wulff, J., 1995. Effects of a hurricane on survival and orientation of large erect coral reef sponges. Coral Reefs, 14 (1), 55-61.

Wulff, J., 2006. Resistance vs recovery: morphological strategies of coral reef sponges. Functional Ecology, 20 (4), 699-708.

Wulff, J.L., 2006. Ecological interactions of marine sponges. Canadian Journal of Zoology, 84 (2), pp.146-166.

WWF (World Wide Fund for Nature), 2001. The Status of Wild Atlantic Salmon: A river by river assessment. Report by World Wide Fund for Nature, Canada.

Wyer, D.W. & King, P.E., 1973. Relationships between some British littoral and sublittoral bryozoans and pycnogonids. In Living and fossil Bryozoa (ed. G.P. Larwood), pp. 199-207. New York: Academic Press.

Wynberg, R.P. & Branch, G.M., 1997. Trampling associated with bait-collection for sandprawns Callianassa kraussi Stebbing: Effects on the biota of an intertidal sandflat. Environmental Conservation, 24 (2), 139-148.

Włodarska-Kowalczuk, M., Szymelfenig, M. & Zajiczkowski, M., 2007. Dynamic sedimentary environments of an Arctic glacier-fed river estuary (Adventfjorden, Svalbard). II: Meio-and macrobenthic fauna. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 74 (1), 274-284.