information on the biology of species and the ecology of habitats found around the coasts and seas of the British Isles

Bibliography (A-Z)

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Ragnarsson, S.A., Thorarinsdottir, G.G. & Gunnarsson, K., 2015. Short and long-term effects of hydraulic dredging on benthic communities and ocean quahog (Arctica islandica) populations. Marine Environmental Research, 109, 113-123.

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Rainbow, P.S. & Moore, P.G., 1990. Seasonal variation in copper and zinc concentrations in three talitrid amphipods (Crustacea). Hydrobiologia, 196, 65-72.

Rainbow, P.S., 1984. An introduction to the biology of British littoral barnacles. Field Studies, 6, 1-51.

Rainbow, P.S., 1987. Heavy metals in barnacles. In Barnacle biology. Crustacean issues 5 (ed. A.J. Southward), 405-417. Rotterdam: A.A. Balkema.

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Rainer, S.F., 1991. The genus Nephtys (Polychaeta: Phyllodocida) of northern Europe: a review of species, including the description of N. pulchra sp. n. and a key to the Nephtyidae. Helgolander Meeresuntersuchungen, 45, 65-96.

Rainer, S.F., 1985. Population dynamics and production of the bivalve Abra alba and implications for fisheries production. Marine Biology, 85, 253-262.

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Raman, A.V. & Ganapati, P.N., 1983. Pollution effects on ecobiology of benthic polychaetes in Visakhapatnam Harbour (Bay of Bengal). Marine Pollution Bulletin, 14, 46-52.

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Ramsay, A., Davidson, J., Bourque, D. & Stryhn, H., 2009. Recruitment patterns and population development of the invasive ascidian Ciona intestinalis in Prince Edward Island, Canada. Aquatic Invasions, 4 (1), 169-176.

Ramsay, A., Davidson, J., Landry, T. & Stryhn, H., 2008. The effect of mussel seed density on tunicate settlement and growth for the cultured mussel, Mytilus edulis. Aquaculture, 275 (1), 194-200.

Ramsay, K., & Holt, R.H.F., 2001. Mantis shrimps Rissoides desmaresti in Tremadog Bay, North Wales. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 81, 695-696.

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Ramsay, K., Kaiser, M.J. & Hughes, R.N., 1996. Changes in hermit crab feeding patterns in response to trawling disturbance. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 144, 63-72.

Ramsay, K., Kaiser, M.J., Moore, P.G. & Hughes, R.N. 1997. Consumption of fisheries discards by benthic scavengers: utilisation of energy subsidies in different marine habitats. Journal of Animal Ecology, 66, 884-896.

Ramsay, K., Kaiser, M.J., Richardson, C.A., Veale, L.O. & Brand, A.R., 2000b. Can shell scars on dog cockles (Glycymeris glycymeris L.) be used as an indicator of fishing disturbance ? Journal of Sea Research, 43, 167-176.

Ramsay, K., Kaiser, M.J., Rijnsdorp, A.D., Craeymeersch, J.A. & Ellis, J., 2000. Impact of trawling on populations of the invertebrate scavenger Asterias rubens. In Effects of fishing on non-target species and habitats, (ed. M.J. Kaiser & S.J. de Groot), pp151-162. Tunbridge Wells: Blackwell Science Ltd.

Ramsay, K., Kaiser, M.J., Rijnsdorp, S.D., Craeymeersch, J.A. & Ellis, J., 2000. Impact of trawling on populations of the invertebrate scavenger Asterias rubens. In Effects of fishing on non-target species and habitats. Biological, conservation and socio-economic issues (ed. M.J. Kaiser & S.J. de Groot), pp. 151-162.

Ramus, J., Beale, S.I. & Mauzerall, D., 1976. Correlation of changes in pigment content with photosynthetic capacity of seaweeds as a function of water depth. Marine Biology, 37 (3), 231-238.

Ramus, J., Lemons, F. & Zimmerman, C., 1977. Adaptation of light-harvesting pigments to downwelling light and the consequent photosynthetic performance of the eulittoral rockweeds Ascophyllum nodosum and Fucus vesiculosus. Marine Biology, 42, 293-303.

Ranade, M.R., 1957. Observations on the resistance of Tigriopus fulvus (Fischer) to changes in temperature and salinity. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 36, 115-119.

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Ranwell, D.S., 1972. Ecology of saltmarshes and sand dunes. London: Chapman & Hall Ltd.

Ranwell, D.S., 1968. Lichen mortality due to 'Torrey Canyon' oil and decontamination measures. Lichenologist, 4, 55-56.

Ranwell, D.S., Wyer, D.W., Boorman, L.A., Pizzey, J.M. & Waters, R.J., 1974. Zostera transplants in Norfolk and Suffolk, GB. Aquaculture, 4, 185-198

Rasmussen, A.D., Banta, G.T. & Anderson, O., 1998. Effects of bioturbation by the lugworm Arenicola marina on cadmium uptake and distribution in sandy sediments. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 164, 179-188.

Rasmussen, A.D., Krag, A., Bjerregaard, P., Weeks, J.M. & Depledge, M.H., 1995. The effects of trace metals on the apparent water permeability of the shore crab Carcinus maenas (L.) and the brown shrimp Crangon crangon. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 31, 60-62.

Rasmussen, E., 1973. Systematics and ecology of the Isefjord marine fauna (Denmark). Ophelia, 11, 1-507.

Rasmussen, E., 1977. The wasting disease of eelgrass (Zostera marina) and its effects on environmental factors and fauna. In Seagrass ecosystems - a scientific perspective, (ed. C.P. McRoy, & C. Helfferich), pp. 1-51.

Ratcliffe, P.J., Jones, N.V. & Walters, N.J., 1981. The survival of Macoma balthica (L.) in mobile sediments. In Feeding and survival strategies of estuarine organisms (ed. N.V. Jones and W.J. Wolff), pp. 91-108. Plenum Press.

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Raveen, R., Samuel, V. & Samuel, T., 2016. Disappearance of Branchiostoma lanceolatum (Pallas) from Pulicat lake area, Tamil Nadu, India. International Journal of Fauna and Biological Studies, 3 (1), 55-57.

Ray, G.L., 2005. Invasive marine and estuarine animals of the Pacific northwest and Alaska. DTIC Document.

Raybaud, V., Beaugrand, G., Goberville, E., Delebecq, G., Destombe, C., Valero, M., Davoult, D., Morin, P. & Gevaert, F., 2013. Decline in kelp in west Europe and climate. Plos One, 8 (6), e66044.

Rayment W.J., 2007. Crepidula fornicata. Slipper limpet. [online]. Marine Life Information Network: Biology and Sensitivity Key Information Sub-programme [On-line]. Plymouth: Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom.  Available from: <>

Rayment, W.J. 2007a. Aphelochaeta marioni A bristleworm. In Tyler-Walters H. and Hiscock K. (eds) Marine Life Information Network: Biology and Sensitivity Key Information Reviews, [on-line]. Plymouth: Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom. Available from:

Rayment, W.J. 2007b. Magelona mirabilis A polychaete. In Tyler-Walters H. and Hiscock K. (eds) Marine Life Information Network: Biology and Sensitivity Key Information Reviews, [on-line]. Plymouth: Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom. Available from:

Rayment, W.J. 2006. Fabulina fabula and Magelona mirabilis with venerid bivalves and amphipods in infralittoral compacted fine muddy sand. In Tyler-Walters H. and Hiscock K. (eds) Marine Life Information Network: Biology and Sensitivity Key Information Reviews, [on-line]. Plymouth: Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom. Available from:

Raymont, J.E.G., 1955. The fauna of an intertidal mud flat. Deep Sea Research, Supplement 3, 178-203.

Raymont, J.E.G., 1950. A fish cultivation experiment in an arm of a sea loch. IV. The bottom fauna of Kyle Scotnish. Proceedings of the Royal Society of Edinburgh (B), 64, 65-108.

Read, G.B. & Gordon, D.P. 1991. Adventive occurrence of the fouling serpulid Ficopomatus enigmaticus (Polychaeta) in New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research, 25(3), 269-273.

Read, K.R.H. & Cumming, K.B., 1967. Thermal tolerance of the bivalve molluscs Modiolus modiolus (L.), Mytilus edulis (L.) and Brachidontes demissus (Dillwyn). Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology, 22, 149-155.

Read, K.R.H. & Cumming, K.B., 1967. Thermal tolerance of the bivalve mollusc Modiolus modiolus (L.), Mytilus edulis (L.) and Brachiodontes demissus (Dillwyn). Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology, 22, 149-155.

Read, P.A., Anderson, K.J., Matthews, J.E., Watson, P.G., Halliday, M.C. & Shiells, G.M., 1983. Effects of pollution on the benthos of the Firth of Forth. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 14, 12-16.

Read, P.A., Anderson, K.J., Matthews, J.E., Watson, P.G., Halliday, M.C. & Shiells, G.M., 1982. Water quality in the Firth of Forth. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 13, 421-425.

Readman, J.A.J. & Hiscock, K. 2017. Eunicella verrucosa Pink sea fan. In Tyler-Walters H. and Hiscock K. (eds) Marine Life Information Network: Biology and Sensitivity Key Information Reviews, [on-line]. Plymouth: Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom. Available from:

Reay, P.J., 1970. Synopsis of biological data on North Atlantic sandeels of the genus Ammodytes. Food and Agriculture Organisation of the UN Report 82.

Rebello, J., Ohno, M., Critchley, A. & Sawamura, M., 1996. Growth rates and agar quality of Gracilaria gracilis (Stackhouse) Steentoft from Namibia, Southern Africa. Botanica Marina, 39 (1-6), 273-280.

Red List Standards & Petitions Subcommittee, 1996. Eretmochelys imbricata. In: IUCN 2006.,

Redman, C.M., 1985. Effect of temperature and salinity on the life history of Capitella capitata (type I). Dissertation Abstracts, 46, 91.

Reed, B.J. & Hovel, K.A., 2006. Seagrass habitat disturbance: how loss and fragmentation of eelgrass Zostera marina influences epifaunal abundance and diversity Marine Ecology Progress Series, 326, 133-143.

Reed, C.G., 1991. Bryozoa. In Reproduction of marine invertebrates, vol. VI. Echinoderms and Lophophorates (ed. A.C. Geise, J.S. Pearse & V.B. Pearse), pp. 85-245. California: Boxwood Press.

Reed, D.C., 1990. The effects of variable settlement and early competition on patterns of kelp recruitment. Ecology, 71, 776-787.

Reed, D.C., Rassweiler, A. & Arkema, K.K., 2008. Biomass rather than growth rate determines variation in net primary production by giant kelp. Ecology and evolution, 89, 2493-2505

Reed, R. H., Collins, J.C. & Russell, G., 1980. The influence of variations in salinity upon photosynthesis in the marine alga Porphyra purpurea (Roth) C. Ag. (Rhodophyta, Bangiales). Z. Pflanzenphysiology, 98, 183-187.

Reed, R.H. & Russell, G., 1979. Adaptation to salinity stress in populations of Enteromorpha intestinalis (L.) Link. Estuarine and Coastal Marine Science, 8, 251-258.

Reed, R.H. & Russell, G., 1978. Salinity fluctuations and their influence on "bottle brush" morphogenesis in Enteromorpha intestinalis (L.) Link. British Phycological Journal, 13, 149-153.

Rees, C.B., 1954. Continuous Plankton Records: The decapod larvae in the North Sea, 1947-1949. Hull Bulletin of Marine Ecology, 3, 157-184.

Rees, E., Nicolaidou, A. & Laskaridou, P., 1976. The effects of storms on the dynamics of shallow water benthic associations. In Proceedings of the 11th European Symposium on Marine Biology, Galway, 5-11 October, 1976. Biology of benthic organisms (ed. B.F., Keegan; P., O'Ceidigh & P.J.S., Boaden), pp. 465-474.

Rees, E.I.S. & Walker, A.J.M., 1983. Annual and spatial variation in the Abra community in Liverpool Bay. Oceanologica Acta, Special issue (0399-1784), 165-169.

Rees, E.I.S., 1978. Observations on the ecological effects of pipeline construction across the Lafan Sands. Report from University College of North Wales, Marine Science Laboratories, Menai Bridge. Nature Conservancy Council, Peterborough, CSD Report, No. 188 (Benthos Research Report, No. 78-1.)

Rees, E.I.S., 2003. Aspects of ecology and distribution of the hermit crab Diogenes pugilator. Newsletter. Porcupine Marine Natural History Society, 12, 36-39

Rees, E.I.S., Nicholaidou, A. & Laskaridou, P., 1977. The effects of storms on the dynamics of shallow water benthic associations. In Proceedings of the 11th European Symposium on Marine Biology, Galway, Ireland, October 5-11, 1976. Biology of Benthic Organisms, (ed. B.F. Keegan, P. O'Ceidigh & P.J.S. Boaden), pp. 465-474.

Rees, E.I.S., Sanderson, W.G., Mackie, A.S.Y. & Holt, R.H.F., 2008. Small-scale variation within a Modiolus modiolus (Mollusca: Bivalvia) reef in the Irish Sea. III. Crevice, sediment infauna and epifauna from targeted cores. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 88 (01), 151-156.

Rees, H., Rowlatt, S., Lambert, M., Lees, R. & Limpenny, D., 1992. Spatial and temporal trends in the benthos and sediments in relation to sewage sludge disposal off the northeast coast of England. ICES Journal of Marine Science: Journal du Conseil, 49 (1), 55-64.

Rees, H.L. & Dare, P.J., 1993. Sources of mortality and associated life-cycle traits of selected benthic species: a review. MAFF Fisheries Research Data Report, no. 33., Lowestoft: MAFF Directorate of Fisheries Research.

Rees, H.L., Waldock, R., Matthiessen, P. & Pendle, M.A., 1999. Surveys of the epibenthos of the Crouch Estuary (UK) in relation to TBT contamination. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 79, 209-223.

Rees, H.L., Waldock, R., Matthiessen, P. & Pendle, M.A., 2001. Improvements in the epifauna of the Crouch estuary (United Kingdom) following a decline in TBT concentrations. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 42, 137-144.

Rees, I., 2009. Assessment of Modiolus modiolus beds in the OSPAR area. Prepared on behalf of Joint Nature Conservation Committee.

Rees, T.K., 1932. A note on the longevity of certain species of the Fucaceae. Annals of Botany, 4,1062-1064.

Rees, W.J., 1962. The distribution of the coral Caryophyllia smithii and the barnacle Pyrgoma anglicum in British waters. Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History) (Zoology), 9, 401-418.

Reeves, S., 1994. Seasonal and annual variation in catchability of sandeels at Shetland. ICES Council Meeting Papers D:19, 1-19.

Reeves, S.A., Armstrong, D.W., Fryer, R.J. & Coull, K.A., 1992. The effects of mesh size, cod-end extension length and cod-end diameter on the selectivity of Scottish trawls and seines. ICES Journal of Marine Science, 49(3), 279-288.

Regnault, M., 1994. Effect of air exposure on ammonia excretion and ammonia content of branchial water of the crab Cancer pagurus. Journal of Experimental Zoology, 268, 208-217.

Regnault, M., 1992. Effect of air exposure on nitrogen metabolism in the crab Cancer pagurus. Journal of Experimental Zoology, 264, 372-380.

Reid, D.G., 1996. Systematics and evolution of Littorina. The Ray Society, London.

Reid, D.G., Abello, P. & Warman, C., 1992. Size and assortative mating in the shore crab Carcinus maenas. First European Crustacean Conference, Paris, August 31-September 5, 1992, Abstracts., MNHN, Paris (France), 124-125.

Reid, D.G., Abello, P., Warman, C.G. & Naylor, E., 1994. Size-related mating success in the shore crab Carcinus maenas (Crustacea: Brachyura). Journal of Zoology, 232, 397-407.

Reid, D.M., 1935. The range of the sea-urchin Echinus esculentus. Journal of Animal Ecology, 4, 7-16.

Reid, D.M., 1940. On Gammarus (Pectenogammarus) planicrurus subgen, et sp., n., Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series II), 6, 287.

Reid, D.M., 1944. Gammaridae (Amphipoda); with key to the families of British Gammaridea. Synopses of British Fauna, 3, 1-33.

Reid, D.M., 1947. Talitridae (Crustacea, Amphipoda)

Reid, G., Liutkus, M., Bennett, A., Robinson, S., MacDonald, B. & Page, F., 2010. Absorption efficiency of blue mussels (Mytilus edulis and M. trossulus) feeding on Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) feed and fecal particulates: implications for integrated multi-trophic aquaculture. Aquaculture, 299 (1), 165-169.

Reid, R.G.B. & Brand, D.G., 1989. Giant kidneys and metal - sequestering nepholiths in the bivalve Pinna bicolor, with comparative notes on Atrina vexillum (Pinnidae Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 126, 95-117.

Reid. J.B., Evans. P.G.H., Northridge. S.P. (ed.), 2003. Atlas of Cetacean Distribution in North-west European Waters. Peterborough: Joint Nature Conservation Committee.

Reidy, S. 1996. Comparison of associations of the nudibranch Aeolidia papillosa with two sea anemones Urticina crassicornis and Metridium senile. In Proceedings of the 24th Annual Benthic Ecology Meeting, Columbia, South Carolina, March 7-10, 1996 (ed. S.A. Woodin et al.), pp. 68.

Reidy, S.P., Kerr, S.R. & Nelson, J.A., 2000. Aerobic and anaerobic swimming performance of individual Atlantic Cod. Journal of Experimental Biology, 203, 347-357.

Reigl, B., 1995. Effects of sand deposition on scleractinian and alcyonacean corals. Marine Biology, 121, 517-526.

Reinhardt, J.F., Stefaniak, L.M., Hudson, D.M., Mangiafico, J., Gladych, R. & Whitlatch, R.B., 2010. First record of the non-native light bulb tunicate Clavelina lepadiformis (Müller, 1776) in the northwest Atlantic. Aquatic Invasions, 5 (2), 185-190.

Reise, K., 2005. Coast of change: habitat loss and transformations in the Wadden Sea. Helgoland Marine Research, 59 (1), 9-21.

Reise, K. & Buhs, F., 1999. Reply to the comment of Damm and Neudecker (1999): long-term decline in epibenthic fauna of tidal channels near the island of Sylt in the northern Wadden Sea. Helgoland Marine Research, 53 (2), 143-145.

Reise, K. & Lackschewitz, D., 1998. Benthos des Wattenmeeres zwischen Sylt und Rømø. Ökosystem Wattenmeer: Austausch-, Transport-und Stoffumwandlungsprozesse (Ch Gätje, K Reise, Hrsg), pp.55-62, Springer, Berlin.

Reise, K., 1979. Spatial configurations generated by motile benthic polychaetes. Helgoländer Wissenschaftliche Meeresuntersuchungen, 32, 55-72.

Reise, K., 1978. Experiments on epibenthic predation in the Wadden Sea. Helgoländer Wissenschaftliche Meeresuntersuchungen, 30, 263-271.

Reise, K., 1977. Predator exclusion experiments in an intertidal mud flat. Helgolander Meeresuntersuchungen, 30, 263-271.

Reise, K., 1985. Tidal flat ecology. An experimental approach to species interactions. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.

Reise, K., 1983. Sewage, green algal mats anchored by lugworms, and the effects on Turbellaria and small Polychaeta. Helgolander Meeresuntersuchungen, 36, 151-162.

Reise, K., 1987. Spatial niches and long-term performance in meiobenthic Platyhelminthes of an intertidal lugworm flat. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 38, 1-11.

Reise, K., Bouma, T.J., Olenin, S. & Ysebaert, T., 2009. Coastal habitat engineers and the biodiversity in marine sediments. Helgoland Marine Research, 63 (1),1-2.

Reise, K., Gollasch, S. & Wolff, W.J., 1999. Introduced species of the North Sea coasts. Helgoland Meeresuntersuchungen, 52, 219-234.

Reise, K., Herre, E. & Sturm, M., 2008. Mudflat biota since the 1930s: change beyond return? Helgoland Marine Research, 62 (1), 13-22.

Reise, K., Herre, E., & Sturm, M. 1989. Historical changes in the benthos of the Wadden Sea around the island of Sylt in the North Sea. Helgoländer Meeresuntersuchungen, 43, 417-433.

Reise, K., Simon, M. & Herre, E., 2001. Density-dependent recruitment after winter disturbance on tidal flats by the lugworm Arenicola marina. Helgoland Marine Research, 55(3), 161-165.

Reise, R. & Schubert, A., 1987. Macrobenthic turnover in the subtidal Wadden Sea: the Norderaue revisited after 60 years. Helgoländer Meeresuntersuchungen, 41, 69-82.

Reish, D.J., 1979. Bristle Worms (Annelida: Polychaeta) In Pollution Ecology of Estuarine Invertebrates, (eds. Hart, C.W. & Fuller, S.L.H.), 78-118. Academic Press Inc, New York.

Reish, D.J., 1978. The effects of heavy metals on polychaetous annelids. Revue Internationale d'Oceanographie Medicale, 49, 99-104.

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